Home Archived October 29, 2018

South Florida Information Access (SOFIA)

publications > water resources investigations > report 03-4287

Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

By Eric D. Swain, Melinda A. Wolfert, Jerad D. Bales, and Carl R. Goodwin

U.S. Geological Survey
Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4287

This report is available to download as a PDF from the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Publications website.

Model Structure
Flow and Transport Model
Appendix I
Appendix II


Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions.

A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere.

Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments.

The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly in the SWIFT2D model, and that the spatial and temporal resolution of these processes in the model is adequate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the effect of changes in boundary conditions and parameter values on simulation results, which aided in identifying areas of greatest uncertainty in the model. The parameter having the most uncertainty (most in need of further field study) was the flow coefficient for coastal creeks. Smaller uncertainties existed for wetlands frictional resistance and wind. Evapotranspiration and boundary inflows indicated the least uncertainty as determined by varying parameters used in their formulation and definition.

Model results indicated that wind was important in reversing coastal creek flows. At Trout Creek (the major tributary connecting Taylor Slough wetlands with Florida Bay), flow in the landward direction was not simulated properly unless wind forcing was included in the simulation. Simulations also provided insight into the major influence that wind has on salinity mixing along the coast, the varying distribution of wetland flows at differing water levels, and the importance of topography in controlling flows to the coast. Slight topographic variations were shown to highly influence the routing of water.

A multiple regression analysis was performed to relate inflows at the northern boundary of Taylor Slough bridge to a major pump station (S-332) north of the SICS model area. This analysis allows Taylor Slough bridge boundary conditions to be defined for the model from operating scenarios at S-332, which should facilitate use of the SICS model as an operational tool.

Introduction >


Multiply By To obtain
meter (m) 3.281 foot
meter per second (m/s) 3.281 foot per second
meter squared per day (m2/d) 10.76 foot squared per day
meter squared per second (m2/s) 10.76 foot squared per second
cubic meter per second (m3/s) 35.31 cubic foot per second
kilometer (km) 0.6214 mile
square kilometer (km2) 0.3861 square mile
centimeter (cm) 3.281 x 10-2 foot
centimeter per second (cm/s) 3.281 x 10-2 foot per second

Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88); horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83).
Other Units of Abbreviations
g/L gram per liter
ppt part per thousand
s/m1/3 second per meter cube root
W/m2 watt per square meter

ADI Alternating-direction implicit
ATLSS Across Tropic Level Systems Simulation
CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
CESI Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative
ENP Everglades National Park
GIS Geographic information system
GPS Global positioning system
HSE Hydrologic Simulation Engine
MAD Mean absolute difference
MD Mean difference
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NPS National Park Service
PES Priority Ecosystem Science
RMSD Root mean square difference
SFRSM South Florida Region Simulation Model
SFWMD South Florida Water Management District
SFWMM South Florida Water Management Model
SICS Southern Inland and Coastal Systems
SWIFT2D Surface-water integrated flow and transport in two dimensions
TBA Turning bands algorithm
USGS U.S. Geological Survey

Prepared as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystem Science Program and the National Park Service Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative

Tallahassee, Florida

U.S. Department Of The Interior
Gale A. Norton, Secretary

U.S. Geological Survey
Charles G. Groat, Director

For additional information
write to:

U.S. Geological Survey
2010 Levy Avenue
Tallahassee, FL 32310

Copies of this report can be
purchased from:

U.S. Geological Survey
Branch of Information Services
Box 25286
Denver, CO 80225-0286

Additional information about water resources in Florida is available on the internet at http://fl.water.usgs.gov

Use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Related information:

SOFIA Project: Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Development

SOFIA Project: TIME and SICS Modeling of Surface Water and Interactions with Ground Water

SOFIA Project: Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) Model Development

| Disclaimer | Privacy Statement | Accessibility |

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
This page is: http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/index.html
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Last updated: 04 September, 2013 @ 02:04 PM(KP)