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Recently Released Publications

Brooks, G.R., Doyle, L.J., Suthard, B.C., and DeWitt, N.T., 1999, Inner West-Central Florida continental shelf; sedimentary facies and facies associations: Open-File Report 98-796, 161 pp.

    • Report graphically represents 123 sediment vibracores, including lithology, grain size, calcium carbonate content, total organic content, mineral content, and age dates if applicable.

    • Sampling area encompasses the barrier-island system of West-Central Florida from Anclote Key south to Venice Inlet.

    • Results indicate nine sedimentary facies throughout the cores: quartz sand; shelly sand; black sand; burrowed sand; organic sand; olive-gray mud; lime mud; blue-gray clay; and carbonate lithoclasts.

Flocks, J.G., and Kindinger, J.L., 1999, Lake Pontchartrain study: A case history in using geologic techniques to analyze environmental change: AAPG-SEPM Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, v. 8, p. A42.

    • Multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary evaluation of the geology, geomorphology, and physical processes associated with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin and their effect on environmental quality of the lake.

    • Geophysical techniques, direct sediment sampling by various methods, and computer modeling of physical processes were employed to understand geologic development of the lake and to assess the impact of physical, biological, and chemical processes on the quality of lake sediments.

Gardner, J.V., Dartnell, P., Mayer, L. and Hughes Clark, J., 1999, Shaded-relief bathymetric and backscatter maps of Santa Monica margin, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Map I-2648, 2 sheets.

    • Santa Monica continental margin was mapped by the USGS in October 1996 in order to generate a set of high-resolution digital base maps for ongoing USGS research projects as well as for state and municipal agencies with projects in the Santa Monica margin region. The mapping represents efforts of a cooperative agreement between the CMGP, Menlo Park Center, and the Univesity of New Brunswick Ocean Mapping Group, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.

    • The set contains two types of maps. A backscatter map (Map A) depicts the angularly binned energy returned to the system from the seafloor. A shaded-relief bathymetric map (Map B) was generated from a digital terrain model (DTM) using a false sun azimuth of 300 and an elevation of 45 above the horizontal to generate shadows.

    • The images can be viewed at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/pacmaps/.

Halley, R.B., 1999, It's phosphorite on Navassa: That's no guano: Geological Society of America (GSA) Southeast Section Annual Meeting, Athens, Ga., 1999 Abstracts with Programs, v. 31, no. 3, p. A-18.

    • Navassa Island presentation was selected as one of seven for inclusion in special session entitled "The Relevance of Ethics to the Geosciences" at the Southeast GSA meeting.

    • Presentation emphasized differences between the legal and scientific definitions of guano and phosphorite and the ethical problems these definitions have caused for the proper management of Navassa resources.

Hickey, T.D., and Shinn, E.A., 1999, Mixing zone diagenesis within an inland bluehole: AAPG-SEPM Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, v. 8, p. A59.

    • Active hydrogeochemical processes along the rock/water interface are responsible for observed changes in mineralogy of limestone at various depths in the bluehole:

      • 0-34.38 m: limestone shows evidence of heavy dissolution due to presence of freshwater lens.

      • 34.38-38.75 m: CaCO2 walls and stalactites are undergoing enhanced dissolution due to sulfur redox reactions active in the brackish-water layer.

      • 38.75-68.75 m: limestone stalactites experienced dissolution and calcite replacement during periods of lower sea level. Presence of aragonite indicates marine precipitation. Thus, during the recent geologic past, the stalactites have accreted aragonite in this zone and are growing in situ. The ground water in this zone is of marine origin and has a strong hydrogen sulfide odor.

      • MIXING-ZONE DOLOMITE: Stalactite bluehole has a well-defined mixing zone that should be preferential to dolomitization. However, there is no geochemical evidence of dolomite. A possible reason is that elevated sulfate concentration in sea water will suppress initiation of dolomitization.

Holmes, C.W., and Marot, M.E., 1999, Measuring monthly to decadal changes in coastal systems: AAPG-SEPM Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, v. 8, p. A62.

    • 210Pb measured at 35 sites in Florida Bay shows that rate of sediment accumulation has varied from 0.3 cm/yr to < 2 cm/yr. 210Pb methods provide the timing of these changes and thus define the historical geology of Florida Bay over the last 150 years.

    • 7Be measured at sites of deposition in Lake Ponchartrain detailed change in sediment chemistry on a monthly scale due to the opening of the Spillway.

Kindinger, J.L., Morton, R.A., Flocks, J.G., and Brooks, G.R., 1999, Evolution and Holocene stratigraphy of estuarine systems: A conceptual model for the northern Gulf of Mexico: AAPG-SEPM Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, v. 8, p. A72.

    • Defines a model for bay and estuarine development within the Gulf of Mexico from the end of the Pleistocene through the Holocene based on sea-level rise.

    • Relates numerous bays and coastal lakes of the northern Gulf Coast based on the concept that flooded incised valleys and subsequent reworking of valley fill produce shoals and barrier islands.

    • Use of geophysical techniques and sediment cores to define a transgressive sequence within the estuaries and relate or contrast the characteristics among them.

Shinn, E.A., 1999, Water quality in the Florida Keys: Schizophrenia in paradise: Geological Society of America Southeast Section Annual Meeting, Athens, Ga., 1999 Abstracts with Programs, v. 31, no. 3, p. A-67.

    • The Keys' population is a contentious schizophrenic society composed of people running away from government. It started with the loyalists, who became known as conchs. They want the reefs to flourish so the tourists will come and keep the economy going, but they want to keep the access road narrow so the tourists will not be encouraged to come. They want to kill mosquitoes so tourists will come, but they all know that pesticides kill organisms (things the tourists would like to see) other than mosquitoes. These are ethical problems.

    • Local politics drive the science funding and the political pressures put the researcher in an ethical minefield.

    • In spite of the politics, we did some great work and learned the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the nutrient levels in ground water, and that ground water seeps into overlying sea water.

    • We discovered the importance of tidal pumping and disproved the river of sand hypothesis by showing that all the ground water under Florida Bay and the Keys is hypersaline.

Shinn, E.A., Reich, C.D., and Hickey, T.D., 1999, Tidal pumping as a diagenetic agent: AAPG-SEPM Annual Meeting, Program with Abstracts, v. 8, p. A129.

    • The point was that recent work done for environmental reasons (chasing sewage in ground water) answered a long-standing question: "What is the pumping mechanism that drives sea water in and out of the bottom to cause either leaching, as in the Florida Keys, or submarine cementation as in the Persian Gulf?" This was a burning question when submarine cementation was first discovered. This paper showed:

      • The tidal pumping that drives the movement of ground water is controlled by an island (as in the Keys) or barrier islands (as in the Persian Gulf).

      • In hypersaline Persian Gulf waters, pumping leads to cementation and occlusion of porosity, and the zone of cementation has a linear trend forced by the shape of the islands.

      • In the Keys, the water is undersaturated with respect to CaCO2 and is leaching the limestone, and the zone of leaching is also controlled by the linear trend of the Keys.

      • This is a story that may be useful to petroleum geologists looking for porosity trends of certain units in the subsurface.

Publications Sent to Geologic Division Publications Groups

  • Butman, B., Bothner, M.H., Connor, M.S., Keay, K.E., Knebel, H. J., Smith, L. W., Manheim, F.M., Signell, R.P., and Buchholtz ten Brink, M., Scientific research improves environmental management and saves money in Boston Harbor cleanup (abs.): Coastal Zone 99 Symposium, San Diego, July 24—30, 1999.

  • Cochrane, G.R., Seafloor mapping using sonar and submersible: Alolkoy (the publication of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary).

  • Cross, V.A., Twichell, D.C., and Parolski, K.F., Archive of seismic reflection data collected aboard RV CORLISS cruise CRLS98014 in the Columbia River Estuary, Willapa Bay and off Southern Washington Inner Continental Shelf: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, CD-ROM.

  • Dartnell, P., and Gardner, J.V., Sea-floor images and data from multibeam surveys in San Francisco Bay, Southern California, Hawaii, Gulf of Mexico, and Lake Tahoe, CA-NV [CD-ROM]: USGS Digital Data Series.

  • Haines, J.W., Howd, P., and Hanson, K., Cross-shore transport and profile evolution at Duck, North Carolina: Proceedings of Coastal Sediments '99.

  • Hampton, M., Coastal zone cooperatives (scientific research in support of coastal planning and management) (abs.): Coastal Zone 99 Symposium, San Diego, July 24—30, 1999.

  • Hapke, C.J., and Richmond, B.M., The development of a coastal aerial mapping system and its application to the study of coastal morphodynamics: Proceedings, Coastal Sediments 1999 meeting, Long Island, New York, June 20-24, 1999.

  • Kaminsky, G.M., and Gelfenbaum, G., The southwest Washington coastal erosion study: Research in support of coastal management (abs.): Coastal Zone 99 Symposium, San Diego, July 24—30, 1999.

  • Krohn, D.M., Storm response aerial photography: USGS Fact Sheet.

  • Mecray, E., King, J., Appleby, P., and Hunt, A., Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain Watershed: Burlington, Vermont: Air, Soil and Water.

  • Schwab, W. C., Houston, L., and Couch, S., New York area sea-floor environmental and resources studies (abs.): Coastal Zone 99 Symposium, San Diego, July 24—30, 1999.

  • Thieler, E.R., Pilkey, O.H., Jr., and Schwab, W.C., Barrier island evolution on the Atlantic Continental Shelf: New evidence for sea-level stillstands and rapid rises in the early Holocene (abs.): 25th Annual Assateague Shelf & Shore Workshop, April 16-17, 1999, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware.

  • Valentine, P.C., Baker, J.L., and Unger, T.S., Sun-illuminated sea floor topography of Quadrangle 17 in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary off Boston, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2717, scale 1:25,000.

  • Valentine, P.C., Unger, T.S., and Baker, J.L., Sun-illuminated sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary off Boston, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Investigations Series Map I-2676-C, scale 1:60,000.

  • Valentine, P.C., Unger, T.S., and Baker, J.L., Sun-illuminated sea floor topography of Quadrangle 16 in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary off Boston, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2716, scale 1:25,000.

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Moloka'i Coral Reefs

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