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Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center

Submarine Groundwater Discharge

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Idealized hydrogeologic cross section showing submarine groundwater discharge.

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an ubiquitous coastal process that is driven by a composite of climatologic, hydrogeologic, and oceanographic processes. For example, terrestrial hydraulic gradients that reflect both short- and long-term climatic conditions almost always transport both surface and ground water toward the coast. In coastal waters, physical oceanographic processes such as wave set-up, tidal pumping, and density-driven circulation impact these hydraulic gradients and thus affect rates of submarine groundwater discharge.

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U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
path: sgd/index.html
Science questions to: Ferdinand Oberle
Last updated 2017