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  EUSE  
   
     
  What we hope to answer with the EUSE Studies?  

 

 

 

  1. How do hydrologic, physical habitat, chemical and biological characteristics (algae, invertebrates, fish) of streams respond to land-use changes associated with increasing urban intensity?
  2. How do these responses vary across the range of environmental settings found across the United States?
  3. What are the most important factors that reduce the quality or number of the fish in our urban streams? Is there "safe" amount of urbanization in which the stream is not affected? Can we develop our land in such a way that minimizes or does not harm the stream whatsoever? These are some of the questions we are trying to answer with our Study.
Background
  • Western Lake Michigan drainage NAWQA was one of 6 Study Units chosen to be part of the national study on the effects of urbanization during the first round of NAWQA Cycle II.
  • Reasons for the selection of WMIC
    • USA Today rated Appleton as having one of the highest urban sprawl indexes in the U.S. for cities less than 250,000 in population
    • The Chicago/Milwaukee/Madison triangle was noted by the USEPA as losing farm ground to urban sprawl faster than any other location in the country.
    • A large number of Study Unit staff participated in a pilot study in the Chicago Metropolitan area during Cycle I NAWQA pilots.
Urbanization Issues in the WMIC Study Unit
  • Increases of peak flow, changes in peak durations and flood volumes, loss of baseflow, and reduced groundwater recharge.
  • Loss of aquatic habitat and degredation of biological integrity.
  • Accelerated erosion, channel instability, and deposition of potentially contaminated sediments.
  • Increases in contaminate concentrations (metals, nutrients, organics) in water, sediment and biota.
Click for WMIC Study Basin
WMIC Study Unit Design
  • Thirty sites were chosen with drainages areas between 4 and 40 square miles.
  • Two major area types were chosen that were relatively consistent in surfical deposits, bedrock and land-use in the Milwaukee, Racine/Kenosha, Green Bay, and Fox Valley metropolitan areas.
    • RHU 9 - clayey surficial deposits, gravel and sand substrate, carbonaceous bedrock and urban land use.
    • RHU 1 - clayey surficial deposits, gravel and sandsubstrates, carbonaceous bedrock and agricultural land use.

      For a description of RHU's, see Robertson and Saad, 1995.
  • The land use gradient for the WMIC EUSE Study went from agriculture to urban as opposed to a change from woodland to urban.
Click to see figure with final EUSE sites for the WMIC Drainages Study Unit

How we conducted the Study? GIS

  • Identified similarly sized basins in the Study Unit (basin delineation).
  • Assemble basin characterization (land use, socioeconomic variables, populations, etc) information.
  • Calculate urban intensity index (UII) to rank sites along the land-use gradient. The UII is based on socioeconomic and landscape variables.
  • Reduce natural variability.
  • Field recon sites.
  • Recalculate information on basin characterictics based on sampling locations.
  • Select final sites that are distributed on the agriculture to urban land use gradient in the following order:
0-19% urban 7 sites
20-39% 9 sites
40 - 59% 5 sites
60 - 79% 5 sites
80 - 100% 4 sites
Click for EUSE Study Area
  • Install pressure transducers at all sites without USGS gaging stations and leave in for one year.
  • Cross-sectional survey at pressure transducer location.
  • Begin water quality sampling: Ten sites, representing the entire gradient were were sampled bi-monthly for nutrients, chloride, sulfate, carbon, and a mix of urban and agricultural use pesticides. The remaining 20 sites will be sampled twice (same analytes), once in the spring and again during ecological sampling during August/September 2004.
  • Pressure transducers were serviced monthly and discharge measurements taken at the sites to help establish a stage/discharge relationship.
  • Fish community sampling was conducted at all 30 sites.
  • Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMD's) were installed at all 30 sites one month prior to ecological sampling. SPMD's were used to bio-accumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants, specifically PAHs, pesticides, organic compounds and other hydrophobic-organic contaminants.
  • Reaches were established and marked for the ecological assessment.
  • Ecological assessment and water quality sampling August/September 2004 included.
  • Water chemistry sampling at all 30 sites.
  • Invertebrate community sampling.
  • Algal community sampling.
  • Habitat assessment at 11 locations in the stream reach, which includes: stream slope, bank height and slope, imbeddedness, stream substrate, wetted width, bankfull width, canopy cover, bank vegetation cover, erosion, presence/absence and identify geomorphic features.
  • Remove pressure transducers at sites and survey the following cross sections for HEC/RAS modeling: Bridge opening and closing, upstream and downstream of bridge (2 times bridge width), top and bottom transects of the ecological reach.
  • Data analysis will begin in late 2005 and 2006 and a web based report will be finished by the end of the 2006 water year.
  • Study Unit staff are involved with national reports, these reports will look at data collected and compiled for all 6 Study Unit Studies; ACFB NAWQA, Atlanta, GA., ALBE NAWQA, Raleigh, N.C., TRIN NAWQA, Austin, TX, SPLT NAWQA, Denver, CO, WILL NAWQA, Portland, OR, and WMIC NAWQA, Wisconsin.

Table 1.  Sites near Milwaukee and Green Bay sampled in association with the EUSE Study. 
Primary sites were sampled for all constituents, secondary sites were sampled (on a limited basis) for water quality and flow.

Station Name

Station
Id. Code

Latitude

Longitude

Datum

Site Type

Lancaster Brook at Shawano Avenue at Howard, WI
04072233
44° 33' 29"
88° 06' 10"
NAD27
Primary
Black Otter Creek near Hortonville, WI
04078085
44° 20' 09"
88° 38' 39"
NAD27
Primary
Sawyer Creek at Westhaven Road at Oshkosh, WI
04081897
44° 00' 55"
88° 35' 40"
NAD27
Primary
Mud Creek at Spencer Road at Appleton, WI
04084429
44° 15' 31"
88° 27' 42"
NAD27
Primary
Garners Creek at Park Street at Kaukauna, WI
04084468
44° 15' 53"
88° 18' 19"
NAD27
Primary
Ashwaubenon Creek near Little Rapids, WI
040850683
44° 24' 51"
88° 07' 37"
NAD27
Primary
Bower Creek Trib at Lime Kiln Road nr Bellevue, WI
040851235
44° 27' 09"
87° 58' 50"
NAD27
Primary
Rio Creek at Pheasant Road near Rio Creek, WI
04085188
44° 36' 12"
87° 31' 37"
NAD27
Primary
Jambo Creek at Jambo Creek Road near Mishicot, WI
04085270
44° 15' 43"
87° 40' 52"
NAD27
Primary
Devils River at Rosencrans Road near Maribel, WI
04085322
44° 18' 33"
87° 49' 36"
NAD27
Primary
Meeme River at Washington Road near Cleveland, WI
04085455
43° 54' 49"
87° 48' 31"
NAD27
Primary
Pigeon Creek at Williamsburg Dr at Theinsville, WI
04086699
43° 14' 01"
87° 59' 08"
NAD27
Primary
Menomonee River at Menomonee Falls, WI
04087030
43° 10' 22"
88° 06' 14"
NAD27
Primary
Honey Creek near Portland Avenue at Wauwatosa, WI
04087118
43° 02' 32"
88° 00' 38"
NAD27
Primary
Oak Creek at South Milwaukee, WI
04087204
42° 55' 30"
87° 52' 12"
NAD27
Primary
Root River at Layton Ave at Greenfield, WI
04087213
42° 57' 32"
88° 02' 24"
NAD27
Primary
Pike River at County Highway A
04087258
42° 39' 13"
87° 51' 01"
NAD27
Primary
Pike Creek at 43rd St at Kenosha, WI
04087270
42° 35' 49"
87° 49' 42"
NAD27
Primary
Kilbourn Ditch at 60th Street near Kenosha, WI
05527729
42° 34' 56"
87° 57' 00"
NAD27
Primary
Baird Creek at Superior Road at Green Bay, WI
040851325
44° 30' 04"
87° 56' 10"
NAD27
Primary
Kewaunee River Trib at Lowell Road near Luxemburg , WI
040851932
44° 35' 33"
87° 42' 48"
NAD27
Primary
Black Creek at Curran Road near Denmark, WI
040853145
44° 20' 14"
87° 44' 43"
NAD27
Primary
Point Creek at Ucker Point Road near Newton, WI
040854395
43° 57' 54"
87° 43' 34"
NAD27
Primary
Lincoln Creek at 47th St at Milwaukee, WI
040869415
43° 05' 49"
87° 58' 20"
NAD27
Primary
Hoods Creek at Brook Road near Franksville, WI
040872393
42° 46' 22"
87° 51' 58"
NAD27
Primary
Fox River at River Road near Sussex, WI
055437901
43° 06' 27"
88° 10' 19"
NAD27
Primary
Lily Creek at Good Hope Road near Menomonee Falls, WI
0408703164
43° 08' 54"
88° 04' 53"
NAD27
Primary
Underwood Cr at Watertown Plank Rd near Elm Grove, WI
040870856
43° 02' 34"
88° 04' 46"
NAD27
Primary
Apple Creek near Sniderville, WI
04085046
44° 21' 18"
88° 11' 28"
NAD27
Primary
Little Menomonee River at Milwaukee, WI
04087070
43° 07' 25"
88° 02' 37"
NAD27
Primary
Duck Creek at Murphy Corner, WI
04072016
44° 23' 11"
88° 19' 29"
NAD27
Secondary
Ashwaubenon Creek near Little Rapids, WI
04085068
44° 24' 51"
88° 07' 37"
NAD27
Secondary
Bower Creek Tributary at Daley Drive near Bellevue, WI
04085123
44° 27' 15"
87° 58' 46"
NAD27
Secondary

The Solutions

It is our intention to also provide information that will lead to future solutions. For example, we will determine if wooded or grass buffers can improve the urban stream conditions (and to what degree) - information that may affect future development approaches. Alternately if we determine that the high PAH streams have a preponderance of parking lots in their watershed, engineers and developers may utilize treatment systems designed specifically for parking lots. Within our Study area, the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District has installed such a device. A description of urban management practices utilized in the Milwaukee area (part of the Western Lake Michigan Drainage Study) can be found at http://www.forester.net/sw_0403_beyond.html.

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