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National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
April 1996 to June 1996

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
CA San Marcos 05/03/96-05/17/96 Duck plague suspect 100(e) Muscovy Duck CA
CA Southern California 06/10/96-08/01/96 Least California Tern 100(e) Open NW
CA Napa 05/15/96-07/15/96 Black-crowned Night Heron; Snowy Egret 100(e) Salmonellosis Multiple fractures NW
Washington DC 01/18/96-01/18/96 Great Blue Heron 2 Parasitism: Eustongyloidiasis NW
GA Savannah 12/18/95-12/19/95 Ring-billed Gull 40(e) Toxicosis SC
GA Boone Lake (Sullivan Cty.) 04/17/96-04/17/96 Mallard 2 Toxicosis suspect SC
GA Fulton County 03/09/96-03/09/96 Cedar Waxwing 43 Trauma SC
IA Melcher-Dallas 05/01/96-05/06/96 Northern Cardinal 4 Salmonellosis NW
IA Union Slough NWR 05/28/96-05/28/96 Barn Swallow 9 Emaciation NW
IL Barrington 03/30/96-04/06/96 Canada Goose 12 Enteritis: hemorrhagic NW
KS Emporia 04/28/96-04/30/96 Common Grackle; Brewer's Blackbird; European Starling; Brown-headed Cowbird 100 Open NW
LA Church Point 03/30/96-03/30/96 American Coot 33 Trauma: impact NW
LA Lake Charles 03/18/96-03/21/96 American Robin 5 Toxicosis: carbamate suspect NW
MI Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency   Oscoda Counties 02/17/95-ongoing White-tailed Deer 21 Bovine Tuberculosis MI
MN Becker 10/01/95-11/15/95 Canada Goose; Northern Pintail 50 Toxicosis: Salt NW
MN Grass Lake 06/20/96-06/27/96 Mallard; Wood Duck; Ruddy Duck; Canada Goose 29 Botulism type C NW
ND Horsehead Lake 05/08/96-05/21/96 Unidentified Scaup; American Coot; Common Goldeneye; American Avocet 50(e) Open NW
NE Branched Lake WMA 03/20/96-03/28/96 American Coot; Snow Goose; Wood Duck; Unidentified Grebe 134 Trauma: weather suspect NW
NE Valentine 05/13/96-05/13/96 Yellow-headed Blackbird; White-crowned Sparrow 50(e) Trauma NW
NE/WY Nebraska Panhandle/E. Wyoming 05/25/96-ongoing Cliff Swallow; Purple Martin; Bank Swallow 1000(e) Emaciation NW
NY Brookhaven 03/19/96-03/20/96 Red Fox; Raccoon 7 Toxicosis: Brodifacoum NY
NY New Castle 03/21/96- 04/05/96 Skunk 3 Toxicosis: Bromadiolone NY
NY East Northport (Long Island) 03/03/96-03/04/96 Screech Owl 1 Toxicosis: Chlordane NY
OH East Harbor 05/20/96-05/23/96 Double-crested Cormorant 21 Open NW
OK Tulsa 03/20/96-04/15/96 Common Grackle 200(e) Open NW
OR Oregon Coast 06/10/96-07/15/96 Common Murre 10,000(e) Emaciation NW
PA Quakerstown 05/08/96-05/08/96 Muscovy Duck 12 Duck Plague PA
VA Chesapeake 05/08/96-05/08/96 Muscovy Duck 22 Duck plague NW
VA Fincastle 03/15/96-03/15/96 American Crow 30(e) Trauma: gunshot SC
WI Cooksville 05/07/96-05/07/96 American Robin; Common Grackle; Unidentified Duck 8 Toxicosis: carbamate suspect NW
WI Beaver Dam 06/01/96-06/17/96 Muscovy Duck; Muscovy (duckling); Hybrid Mallard 35 Duck plague NW

(e) = estimate; * = morbidity and mortality

Alaska Fish and Game Department (AK), Arizona Game and Fish Department (AZ), B.C. Ministry of Environment (BC), Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center (CCW), Center for Disease Control (CDC), California Fish and Game Wildlife Investigations Lab (CFG), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MN), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation (NY), Oregon Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife (OR), Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University (PA), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW), San Diego County Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (SDC), Environment Ministry Laboratory of Toronto (TOR), Wyoming Game and Fish (WY), Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (WA), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI) , US Army, Fort Meade (USA), University of California Davis (UCD), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

Written and compiled by Gregory Kidd, NWHC. The Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report is available at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov. To report mortality or receive information about this report, contact the above NWHC staff, e-mail: kathy_converse@usgs.gov., or for Hawaiian Islands contact Thierry Work. Phone: (608) 270-2400, FAX: (608) 270-2415 or write USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

The following highlights wildlife mortality and morbidity events reported to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) from April through June, 1996. There were 31 events reported to NWHC this quarter which compares with 41 events during this quarter in 1995 and 1994, 37 in 1993, 58 in 1992, and 53 in 1991.

Duck plague was confirmed in several areas this quarter: in Quakerstown, Pennsylvania, muscovies died on private land; in Chesapeake and Poquoson, Virginia, muscovies died on small residential ponds. Although free-flying waterfowl had access to both Virginia areas, no other species were found sick and all the muscovy ducks died. Duck plague was confirmed as the cause of another outbreak near Beaver Dam, Wisconsin in which muscovy and muscovy/mallard hybrids were affected. Also, duck plague was suspected as the cause of mortality in muscovies from San Marcos, California. A local breeder had mortality in approximately 100 caged muscovies and no other action was taken.

Mortality in swallows was reported from the Nebraska Panhandle and Eastern Wyoming area. Emaciation was diagnosed as the cause of death and it is thought that the cold weather in the area may have contributed to decreased availability of their food source.

Salmonellosis was diagnosed as the cause of death for an estimated 100 black crowned night herons and snowy egrets in Napa, California. Salmonellosis outbreaks are usually a problem in passerine birds using bird feeders. There are two salmonellosis outbreaks previously reported in egrets in California and one outbreak in cattle egrets in Texas. This is the first outbreak of salmonellosis in black-crowned night herons reported to NWHC.

The Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Rose Lake laboratory, has reported the confirmation of Mycobacterium bovis (bovine tuberculosis) from a wild deer collected in November 1994, and from lymph nodes of 21 deer collected during a survey of deer collected during the fall 1995 hunting season in four northeastern Michigan counties. The MIDNR has implemented several on-going surveillance activities in coordination with five other domestic animal, human health and wildlife health agencies. To date, no human cases of tuberculosis have been traced back to exposure to deer and no livestock were found to be infected with bovine tuberculosis.

Oregon Coastal Refuges reported the mortality of at least 10,000 common murres. An estimated 500 birds were found dead but the impact to the colonies appears to be greater, with colony abandonment between 25-80% in a population of 750,000 birds. This is the most significant mortality recorded in adult murres in Oregon in the last 20 years that records have been kept. Emaciation has been a consistent finding in necropsied birds. Starvation is a likely cause of the emaciation; however, there is insufficient data to allow adequate assessment of their food base.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services reported a small die-off of Canada geese on a residential pond in Barrington, Illinois. Geese were observed swimming in circles with their head twisted and extended over their back. Mallards were present on the area but were unaffected. Two geese submitted to the NWHC were in good body condition; one goose had widespread infiltrating lymphocytic masses and the other goose had distended intestines filled with sloughed epithelium and blood. No viruses were isolated, no parasites were present in the intestines, brain cholinesterase levels were normal, and analyses for lead and anticoagulants were negative. Salmonella sp. was present in the brain of one goose. No cause of the enteritis could be determined.

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation reported three cases of toxicosis this quarter. A screech owl was found on Long Island in convulsions and subsequently died after apparently ingesting food contaminated with chlordane, widely used for termite and turf insect control. In Fire Island Pines, two red foxes and a raccoon died from ingesting Brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide. Four badly decomposed deer were also found nearby but could not be submitted. In Mt. Kisco, New York, three skunks found dead below an old landfill area were poisoned with Bromadiolone, another anticoagulant rodenticide.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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