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National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 1999 to September 1999

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AZ Maricopa CO, Ak Chin Indian Reservation 08/13/99-08/18/99 American Coot Killdeer, Western Sandpiper, Least Sandpiper, Wilson's Phalarope 18(e) Open NW
CA West Sacramento, Arrowhead Harbor 04/28/99-04/28/99 Muscovy 6(e) Duck plague CA
CA Lower Klamath and Tule Lake 07/15/99-08/15/99 Eared Grebe, Mallard, Northern Shoveler, Cinnamon Teal,Western Grebe 300(e) Botulism, type C NW
CA Sacramento NWR 08/18/99-ongoing Mallard, Unspecified Duck, Snowy egret 431 Botulism, type C NW
CA Salton Sea 07/01/99-11/15/99 Double-crested Cormorant, Brown Pelican, American White Pelican, White-faced Ibis, Marbled Godwit 685 Botulism type C NW
CA Westmorland 06/28/99-10/01/99 Cattle Egret 400(e) Emaciation NW
CA Fresno CO. 08/15/99-08/15/99 Mt Yellow-legged Frog 200(e) Open NW
CO Boulder CO 05/10/99-05/12/99 Northern Leopard Frog, Tiger Salamander 5 Open NW
CO Empire 05/17/99-09/08/99 Boreal Toad 10 Chytrid Fungus NW
CO Fort Collins 07/14/99-ongoing Mallard, American Coot, Spotted Sandpiper, Western Kingbird, American Robin 1050 Botulism type C CO, NW
GA Savannah NWR 06/28/99-06/28/99 Mallard 7 Botulism type C NW
ID Bingham CO., Fort Hall Indian Reservation 06/20/99-09/14/99 Tiger Salamander 223(e) Open NW
ID Market Lake, Jefferson CO. 07/15/99-ongoing Franklin's Gull, Blue-winged Teal 150 Botulism type C IFG, NW
IL DuPage CO. 08/15/99-09/01/99 Mallard 22 Botulism Suspect NW
IL Chautauqua NWR 08/30/99-09/07/99 Unidentified Shorebird, Blue-winged Teal, Wood Duck, Norther Shoveler, Mallard 150(e) Botulism NW
IL Chicago, Metro Parks Pond 07/09/99-07/09/99 Canada Goose, Mallard 9 Toxicosis: organophosphorus cmpd. suspect NW
KS Johnson CO., Gardner Lake 07/02/99-07/02/99 Mallard, Canada Goose 22 Toxicosis: Diazinon NW
LA Jonesville 09/08/99-09/15/99 Blue-winged Teal, Gadwall 34(e) Open NW
MA Cape Cod National Seashore 08/23/99-09/16/99 Bull Frog 100(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
ME Becky's Pond 07/07/99-07/07/99 Wood Frog, Mink Frog 30(e) Open NW
ME Woodland 07/23/99-07/23/99 Wood Frog 50(e) Open NW
MN Loring Park 08/17/99-08/17/99 Mallard 50(e) Botulism Suspect NW
MN Crow Wing CO. 06/10/99-07/25/99 Green Frog, Mink Frog, Northern Leopard Frog 35(e) Open NW
MO Carter CO 08/17/99-08/17/99 Unidentified Duck 2 Open NW
MO Taney CO., Lake Taneycomo 07/02/99-07/02/99 Canada Goose, Wood Duck 18 Botulism type C
MT Benton Lake NWR 07/30/99-09/25/99 Mallard (duckling, Northern Shoveler 35 (e) Botulism type C, Chlamydiosis NW
MT Ravalli CO 06/21/99-06/25/99 House Finch, Pine Siskin 10(e) Undetermined NW
NC Charlotte 08/07/99-08/07/99 Purple Martin, European Starling, Common Grackle 111(e) Trauma suspect NW
NC Davidson CO., High Rock Lake 08/15/99-09/15/99 Mallard, Muscovy 100(e) Toxicosis: organophosphorus , Botulism typeC NW
ND Audubon NWR - Turtle Lake 08/05/99-09/17/99 Blue-winged Teal, Pintail, American Coot, Northern Shoveler 67 Botulism type C NW
headers="header1"ND headers="header2"Horsehead Lake, Kidder Co. headers="header3"07/02/99-09/20/99 headers="header4"Blue-winged Teal, Gadwall, Western Grebe, Clark's Grebe headers="header5"6,079 headers="header6"Botulism headers="header7"NW
ND Logan CO., Roesler 07/01/99-08/25/99 Ring-billed Gull 756 Open NW
ND McIntosh CO., Salzer WPA 07/20/99-08/19/99 Mallard, Gadwall, Blue-winged Teal, American Avocet 1661 Botulism Suspect, Emaciation NW
ND New Leipzig 08/12/99-08/13/99 House Sparrow 700(e) Open NW
ND Ramsey CO., Lake Alice 08/18/99-09/17/99 Northern Pintail, Green-winged Teal, Mallard 616(e) Botulism type C NW
ND Tewaukon NWR 08/16/99-09/30/99 Northern Pintail, American Coot, Canada Goose, Double-crested Cormorant, Northern Shoveler 353 Botulism type C NW
ND Upper Souris NWR, Lake Darling 08/01/99-09/03/99 Mallard, American Coot, Gadwall, Northern Shoveler 1,700(e) Botulism type C suspect NW
NH Carroll CO., White Pond 09/01/99-09/10/99 Bull Frog 100 Open NW
NH Great Bay NWR 08/09/99-08/09/99 Green Frog, Pickerel Frog, Eastern Spotted Newt 4 Open NW
NJ Salem, Cumberland CO 08/01/99-09/01/99 White-tailed Deer 60(e) Epizootic hemorrhagic disease
NM Sevilleta NWR 08/24/99-08/30/99 Gray Wolf 5 Parvovirus Suspect NW
NV Stillwater NWR 07/10/99-09/15/99 Mallard, Green-winged Teal, Northern Pintail, White-faced Ibis, Gadwall 2618 Botulism Suspect
NY   CT NJ Long Island, Staten Island, Westchester CO, Rockland CO Fairfield, New Haven CO Statewide 08/11/99-ongoing American Crow, Fish Crow 1000's(e) West Nile Virus CDC, NYS, NW
OH Columbus 07/21/99-07/27/99 Mallard, Canada Goose, Domestic Duck 38(e) Botulism type C NW
OR Summer lake 07/30/99-08/16/99 Double-crested Cormorant 4(e) Open NW
PA Presque Isle State Park 07/18/99-ongoing Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull, Great Black-backed Gull, Black-bellied Plover, American Coot 271 Botulism type E NW
TN Gourley Pond, Cades Cove, Great Smokey Mountains 07/11/99-07/11/99 Pickerel Frog, Spotted Salamander 6 Open NW
TX Euless 07/01/99-08/01/99 Cattle Egret, Snowy Egret, Great Egret, Little Blue Heron 99 Open NW
UT Bear River NWR 07/08/99-07/31/99 Double-crested Cormorant 1,000(e) Newcastle Disease Virus NW
UT Ouray NWR 09/11/99-10/11/99 Green-winged Teal, Northern Pintail, Gadwall, Mallard, American Coot 750(e) Botulism type C NW
WI Green Bay 07/19/99-07/25/99 Mallard, Northern Pintail, Herring Gull, Wood Duck 9(e) Botulism NW
WI Racine 08/17/99-08/18/99 Ring-billed Gull, Mallard 36(e) Botulism suspect NW
WI Milwaukee CO 08/02/99-08/12/99 Mallard 46 Botulism type C NW
WY Sublette CO 08/02/99-08/02/99 Tiger Salamander 200(e) Open NW

(e) = estimate * = morbidity and mortality

California Department of Fish and Game-Wildlife Investigations Laboratory (CFG); Centers For Disease Control, Ft. Collins, CO, (CDC); Colorado Division of Wildlife (CO); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IFG); National Wildlife Health Center (NW); New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NY); Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SC).

Written and compiled by Kathryn Converse, Kimberli Miller, Linda Glaser, Terry Creekmore, and Audra Schrader, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). To report mortality or if you would like specific information on these mortalities, contact one of the following NWHC staff: Western US Kathryn Converse; Eastern US--Kimberli Miller; Hawaiian Islands--Thierry Work. Phone (608) 270-2400, FAX (608) 270-2415 or E-mail kathy_converse@usgs.gov. National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

On September 24, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) announced the isolation and identification of the West Nile virus (WNV) from birds collected in New York City. West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus closely related to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, a known virus infection of birds in the United States which occasionally causes human cases and epidemics. The West Nile virus has never been reported in the United States or any area of the Western Hemisphere prior to this isolation. Birds are the natural hosts for this virus and the virus is transmitted from birds to other animals, including humans, through the bite of mosquitoes. The virus is not directly transmitted between humans and is not known to be transmitted from birds to humans or to other animals without the arthropod vector.

American crows appear to be especially sensitive to this disease with mortality in a 14 county area of New York City (including counties in New Jersey) estimated to be in the thousands. Fish crows are also dying of WNV. West Nile virus has been identified in 17 native American bird species although it has not been determined to be the cause of death in all these species. Each of the states of New Jersey, Connecticut, and New York are examining the bird carcasses found within their borders for WNV. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center has recruited submission of carcasses, primarily crows, from states on the Atlantic coast (outside of NJ, CT, NY) for WNV testing. One crow from Baltimore, MD was found to be positive for WNV during this surveillance effort. Carcass submission and testing for WNV is ongoing and surveillance is planned through the winter. Selected specimens from probable WN virus positive crows submitted from new locations will be shipped to CDC for confirmation. Concurrently, USGS and CDC will be collaborating with Dr. Ward Stone (New York Department of Environmental Conservation), New York City and New York State Public Health officials, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to conduct field investigations in the New York area. Researchers will attempt to determine the wildlife species involved, the geographic and temporal distribution of the new virus in bird populations, and where the virus may be expanding beyond the currently reported sites. There is concern that if migratory birds are infected, the virus will move farther south during fall migration.

Type E botulism was confirmed in gulls collected during mortality of 230 ring-billed, greater black backed and herring gulls since late July on Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pennsylvania. Other species implicated in the mortality include ducks and loons, however these species have not yet been tested for the toxin. Botulism type E has been the cause of bird mortality in the Great Lakes in 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, and 1983. All of the bird moralities occurred in the autumn, except in 1980, and it is thought that eating fish exposes the birds to the toxin. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center has confirmed botulism type E mortality in birds collected from two ongoing mortality events. Over 200 common loons, grebes, diving ducks, and ring-billed, herring, and Bonaparte's gulls have died along the northern shore of Lake Erie in Ontario, Canada between Point Pelee National Park and Rondeau Provincial Park, and several hundred red-throated loons, grebes, mergansers, diving ducks, and ring-billed and Bonaparte's gulls are reported to have died along the southeastern part of Lake Huron near Kettle Point and Grand Bend.

Waterfowl mortality was reported at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in late July. Botulism was the suspected cause of death, however many of the birds that were collected were thin. All of the birds initially submitted to the NWHC were emaciated and several had pneumonia and/or an airsacculitis. Cultures submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa were positive for chlamydia. A follow-up field investigation of this mortality event confirmed the presence of chlamydia in samples taken from migratory birds trapped on the refuge. This is the first reported chlamydiosis mortality in migratory waterfowl in the United States.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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