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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
April 2001 to June 2001

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AK Juneau Co., Mendenhall Peninsula 05/22/01-06/24/011 Red-breasted Sapsucker 8(e) Predation, Emaciation NW
AL Escambia Co., Damacus 01/28/01-01/28/01 American Robin 3 Toxicosis: Plant (Pennyroyal Oil) SC
AR Prairie Co., Peckerwood Lake 04/04/01-04/30/01 American Alligator 6(e) Undetermined, Weather suspect AR
CA Orange Co., near San Diego 04/13/01-04/25/01 Western Spadefoot Toad Pacific Tree Frog 200(e) Open, Parasitism: Protozoonosis NW
San Diego Co., Anza Borrego Desert SP 05/15/01-05/20/01 California Tree Frog, California Red-legged Frog, Pacific Tree Frog 20(e) Parasitism: Trematodiasis NW
CA San Diego Co., North Island 06/08/01-ongoing California Least Tern 381 (e) Emaciation NW
CA Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 05/18/01-ongoing Brown Pelican, American White Pelican, Ring-billed Gull 31, 63* Botulism type C NW
FL Brevard Co., Crane Creek 05/01/01-05/31/01 Brown Pelican, American White Pelican 100(e) Open FL
FL Marion Co., Oklawaha Prairie American White Pelican 16 Botulism type C NW
FL Okeechobee Co., Lake Okeechobee 12/01/00-05/21/01 American White Pelican 24(e) Open NW,SC
FL Hillsborough County, Pinellas County 05/22/01-ongoing Eurasian Collared Dove 894 Parasitism: Trichomonosis FL
GA Peach Co., Fort Valley 03/28/01-03/28/01 Cedar Waxwing 50 (e) Trauma SC
GA Polk Co., Cedartown 04/07/01-04/13/01 White-throated Sparrow 5 Salmonellosis SC
ID Ada Co., Meridian 04/15/01-04/20/01 Mallard 12 Undetermined NW
MA Barnstable Co., Long Pond 04/23/01-05/04/01 Bull Frog 1,670(e) Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
ME Hancock Co., Acadia NP 06/10/01-ongoing Green Frog, Bull Frog 600 (e) Viral Infection suspect: Iridovirus NW
MI Monroe Co., Monroe 05/30/01-06/15/01 Herring Gull 2,900 (e) Open, Predation NW
MI Wayne Co., Detroit 06/01/01-ongoing Herring Gull 500 (e) Dehydration suspect MI
MS Warren Co., Jackson 03/01/01-03/29/01 Brown-headed Cowbird Northern Cardinal 12 (e) Salmonellosis SC
ND Stark Co., Schnell RA 05/10/01-05/16/01 Tree Swallow 5 Open NW
NJ Cape May Co., Wildwood 04/30/01-05/03/01 Atlantic Brant 85 Toxicosis: Diazinon NJ
NY Genesee Co., Elba 01/15/01-02/15/01 Mallard, American Black Duck, Domestic Duck, Domestic Goose, Gadwall 200 Aspergillosis NY
OK Tulsa Co., Tulsa 12/15/00-03/31/01 Common Grackle, European Starling, Northern Cardinal, Unidentified Dove 200(e) Trauma: Impact NW
OR Deschutes County 02/16/01-06/18/01 European Starling, Unidentified Sparrow 47 Undetermined NW
OR Douglas Co., Roseburg 12/21/00-01/04/01 Pine Siskin 8 Salmonellosis SC
PA Allegheny County , Westmoreland County 05/08/01-06/01/01 Muscovy Duck 20 (e) Duck plague NW
PA Erie Co., Presque Isle SP 06/23/01-ongoing Ring-billed Gull 36(e) Botulism suspect EH
CAN Ontario; Long Point & Dover Point Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Redhead Duck, Accipiter Hawk, Fish (1000s) CC
PA Erie Co., Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie 04/01/01-ongoing Spiny Softshell Turtle, Map Turtle, Mudpuppy Salamander 9 Pneumonia, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas NW
TN Blount Co., Gourley Pond 04/01/01-04/30/01 Eastern Red-spotted Salamander, Four-toed Newt 3* Open NW
TN Coffee Co., Wartrace 03/15/01-07/15/01 Mourning Dove, Brown-headed Cowbird 35(e) Parasitism: Trichomoniasis SC
TN Great Smokey Mountains NP 02/01/01-02/28/01 Wood Frog, Chorus Frog, Eastern Red-spotted Newt 63 Open, Trauma, Emaciation NW
TN Lewis Co., Naco Lake 06/01/01-06/04/01 Canada Goose 15 Open SC
TX Travis Co., Austin 05/29/01-05/29/01 White-winged Dove, Rock Dove 5 Trauma: Powerline suspect NW
VA Augusta Co., George Washington &Jefferson Nat'l Forest 06/09/01-06/12/01 Wood Frog 200(e) Fungal Infection: Systemic yeast-like NW
VA Eastern Shore of Virginia NWR 04/10/01-05/17/01 Tree Swallow, Eastern Bluebird 7 Emaciation, Open NW
WA Pierce Co., Wapato Creek 05/01/01-05/03/01 Mallard 10 (e) Toxicosis: Organophosphate NW
WI Shawano Co., Shawano 05/30/01-06/07/01 Muscovy Duck 200(e) Duck plague AH, NW
WY Campbell Co., near Gillette 05/20/01-05/24/01 Tiger Salamander 80(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
WY Carbon Co., Cow Creek 05/30/01-05/30/01 Tiger Salamander 33 Viral Infection suspect: Iridovirus NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
CA Fresno Co., Sierra Nat'l Forest 06/15/00-09/01/00 Mountain Yellow-legged Frog 100 (e) Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
FL Monroe Co., Florida Keys 12/31/00-05/17/01 Brown Pelican, Common Loon, Great Blue Heron 250 (e) Open NW

(e) = estimate, * = morbidity and mortality

Arkansas Fish & Game Commission (AR), Canadian Co-operative Wildlife Health Centre at University of Guelph (CC), Erie County Health Dept. (EH), Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources (MI), National Wildlife Health Center (NW), New Jersey Dept. of Fish & Wildlife (NJ), New York State Dept. Environmental Conservation (NY), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SC), University of Florida Laboratory of Wildlife Disease Research (FL), Wisconsin Animal Health Lab (AH).

Written and compiled by Audra Schrader, Kathryn Converse, Kim Miller, Grace McLaughlin and Rex Sohn, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). The Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report is also available on the Internet at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov. To report mortality or if you would like to obtain specific information on these mortalities, contact one of the following NWHC staff: Eastern US - Kimberli Miller; Western US - Kathryn Converse; Hawaiian Islands - Thierry Work. Phone (608) 270-2400, FAX (608) 270-2415 or e-mail kathy_converse@usgs.gov. National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

West Nile Virus. West Nile virus (WNV) dead bird surveillance is underway. USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) is continuing to provide WNV testing for several states. NWHC is primarily focusing on testing birds in the Corvidae family (crows, jays and magpies), and raptors. This is due to the high prevalence of WNV in these species in previous years.

The first positive case this year was reported by New Jersey and involved a crow collected in Bergen County, NJ on 30 April 2001. Through the end of June 2001, US states that have had birds/mammals test positive for WNV are CT, FL, GA, MD, NJ, NY and RI. Florida and Georgia are new locations for confirmed WNV cases. Current maps showing states that are participating in WNV surveillance and locations for positive WNV cases can be found on the Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) website at http://cindi.usgs.gov/hazard/event/west_nile/west_nile.html#2001. Please also go to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm for up-to-date information on WNV. For information on how to submit a bird for WNV testing in your state, please contact your local public health department or visit our website at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/west_nile_virus/index.jsp. If you are unable to find the information you need, please call Kathryn Converse or Kimberli Miller at (608) 270-2400 for directions on how and where to submit a dead bird for WNV testing.

Amphibian Morbidity and Mortality. From late April to early June, there were 10 reports of morbidity and mortality in immature and adult amphibians. Mortality sites in six states ranged from vernal pools, seasonal and permanent ponds, kettle ponds, stock ponds to impoundments and affected a range of species of terrestrial and tree frogs, toads, newts and salamanders. Causes of illness or death varied as well and included suspect and confirmed iridovirus, chytrid fungus and yeast-like infections, trauma and parasitism.

California Least Terns. In mid-June 2001, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Carlsbad California Field Office, reported the mortality of endangered California least tern chicks in several nesting colonies along the southern California coast. By late June, the mortality had increased to nearly 400 chicks. Tern biologists suggest the chick mortality could be due to infectious disease, predation, starvation due to food scarcity, disturbance by predators, or intoxication by naturally occurring marine biotoxins. The only significant finding in two chicks submitted to the NWHC was emaciation. An investigation of this event is ongoing and additional submissions are anticipated.

Avian Botulism at Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR. Avian botulism type C was confirmed at Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR in a herring gull collected 15 May 2001, and a brown pelican on 07 June 2001. To date, 31 dead birds have been collected. Twenty-four (80%) were pelicans with 21 (67%) endangered California brown pelicans. In addition to the pelican mortalities, 60 sick brown and 3 sick American white pelicans were retrieved and placed in rehabilitation. An estimated 3,895 pelicans were at risk during this quarter. During June, there were concurrent fish mortalities that included over 2.2 million tilapia, croaker and orange-mouth corvina.

Diazinon in Atlantic Brant. New Jersey Department of Fish & Wildlife reported a mortality event involving approximately 85 Atlantic brant. The event occurred 30 April 2001 - 5 May 2001, at the southern tip of New Jersey in Cape May County. Upon toxicological analysis, Diazinon, an organophosphate pesticide, was detected. The source of the poison is unknown. Nearby Cape May NWR was unaffected by the event and did not report any dead birds. The New York Wildlife Pathology Unit has documented at least 3 brant die-offs in New York due to diazinon from the late 1970's to mid 1990's.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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