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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
October 2001 to December 2001

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AR Anchorage & Matanuska-Susitna Valley 01/01/01-12/31/01 Black-capped Chickadee, Black-billed Magpie, Northwestern Crow, Steller’s Jay, Downy-Woodpecker 200*(e) Deformities: Etiology undetermined AK
AR Garland Co., Lake Ouachita 12/13/01-ongoing Bald Eagle 1 Vacuolar myelinopathy NW
AR Mississippi Co., Burdette 05/10/01-05/26/01 Southern Leopard Frog 20,000(e) Environmental Stress NW
CA Los Angeles Co., San Francisquito Canyon 08/29/01-10/23/01 Pacific Tree Frog 9* Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
CA Santa Clara & Alameda Co.; Artesia Slough, Coyote Creek   & San Jose 06/20/01-11/10/01 Mallard, Green-winged Teal, Gadwall, Northern Shoveler, California Gull 1,660 Botulism suspect SF
CO El Paso & Teller Co;, Colorado Springs area 06/01/01-ongoing Raccoon, Red Fox 900(e) Canine distemper CO
CO Otero Co., La Junta 09/17/01-09/21/01 American White Pelican, American Avocet,   Ring-billed Gull,   Northern Shoveler,   Green-winged Teal 1,825 Trauma: Hailstorm CO
FL Alachua Co Gainesville 07/01/01-11/01/01 1 Southern Leopard Frog, Green Tree Frog 180(e) Hepatitis, Ulcerative dermatitis NW
FL Lake Apopka 10/24/01-10/30/01 American Coot, Bald Eagle 21 Trauma NW
FL Lee Co., Gasparilla Is. 12/14/01-ongoing American, White Pelican 14 Open NW
GA Glynn Co., Brunswick Harbor 10/09/01-10/14/01 Ruddy Turnstone 170(e) Toxicosis suspect: Urea SC
GA J. Strom Thurmond Lake/Clarks Hill Lake 10/20/01-ongoing Canada Goose, Bald Eagle 25 Vacuolar myelinopathy NW
ID Valley Co., S. Fork of Salmon River 08/25/01-10/09/01 Idaho Giant Salamander 11(e) Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
MD QueenAnnes Co Stevensville 10/08/01-11/13/01 GreatBlue Heron 10 Steatitis MD, NW
MI SaginawCo., Saginaw 07/01/01-11/05/01 AmericanGoldfinch 10 Trauma NW
MS HarrisonCo., Gulfport 10/01/01-10/10/01 HouseFinch 4(e) Conjunctivitis: Mycoplasmasuspect NW,LU
MT RavalliCo. 08/01/01-08/05/01 Boreal Toad 1000(e) Open NW
MT RavalliCo., Sweeney Creek Headwaters 06/08/01-06/14/01 ColumbiaSpotted Frog 111 Exposure: Hypothermia NW
NC CarteretCo., Bouge Banks 10/23/01-10/23/01 Yellow-rumped Warbler, Palm Warbler, Swamp Sparrow,   Common Yellowthroat, Black-throatedBlue Warbler 100(e) Trauma: Tower strike NW
NC MooreCo., Woodlake 10/24/01-ongoing AmericanCoot 2 Vacuolar myelinopathy NW
NY DutchessCo., Poughkeepsie 10/22/01-10/22/01 Gray Squirrel 3 Toxicosis: Brodifacoum NY
NY MonroeCo., Perinton 10/05/01-10/08/01 AmericanCrow 5 Toxicosis:Avitrol NY
NY NiagaraCo., Lewiston 12/18/01-12/18/01 CanadaGoose 14 Toxicosis:Zinc phosphide NY
NY NiagaraCo., Niagara Falls 09/12/01-09/14/01 Rock Dove 4 Toxicosis: Avitrol NY
NY RensselaerCo., Reichards Lake 11/09/01-11/23/01 CanadaGoose 5 Lead poisoning NY
NY SchenectadyCo., Scotia 06/22/01-08/22/01 Gray Squirrel 8 Toxicosis:Brodifacoum NY
OR AnkennySlough NWR 10/24/01-11/10/01 Canada(Cackling) Goose 25 Aspergillosis NW
PAN Canal Zone, Panama 05/30/01-08/08/01 Tungara Frog 11 Toxicosis suspect: pesticide NW
UT DavisCo., Great Salt Lake 12/17/01-12/31/01 EaredGrebe,   California Gull 10,000(e) BacterialInfection: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathae NW
UT Salt Lake City, Mill Creek 10/05/01-10/12/01 Mallard 14 Botulism type C NW
UT WasatchCo., Heber Valley 09/06/01-11/15/01 ColumbiaSpotted Frog 9 FungalInfection: Chytrid NW
WI Door Co.,Sturgeon Bay 08/31/01-09/28/01 Mallard,   Double-crested Cormorant, Unidentified Scaup 42 Botulism type C & E NW, WI
WI Milwaukee Co., Jackson Park 09/10/01-09/13/01 Mallard,   Ring-billed Gull 9 Botulism type C NW, WI
WI VilasCo., Lac Vieux Desert 07/01/01-07/31/01 Ring-billed Gull 10(e) Salmonellosis WI
WI WI River area 11/27/01-ongoing Bald Eagle 7 Open NW, WI
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
CA ImperialCo., Sonny Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 05/18/01-11/09/01 Brown Pelican,American White Pelican,   Ring-billed Gull,Northern Shoveler,    Ruddy Duck 262, 409* Botulismtype C NW
CA Sacramento NWR Complex 07/28/01-11/19/01 NorthernShoveler,Mallard,Northern Pintail,   Green-winged Teal,American Coot 581 Botulism type C NW
MT Gallatin Co., Beaver Creek 07/10/01-07/11/01 Columbia Spotted Frog 27 Viral Infection:   Iridovirus NW
RI WashingtonCo., Exeter 07/08/01-07/15/01 Wood Frog 10,000(e) ViralInfection: Iridovirus NW
UT Utah Co.,near Elberta 07/01/01-07/10/01 CaliforniaGull 500(e) Dehydration NW
(e) = estimate, * = morbidity and mortality

Bosque del Apache NWR (BA), California Fish & Game (CA), Colorado Division of Wildlife (CO), Houston Zoo (HZ), Louisiana State University (LU), National Wildlife Health Center (NW), New Jersey Dept. of Fish & Wildlife (NJ), Oklahoma Dept. of Wildlife Conservation (OW), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SC), Texas Park & Wildlife Dept. (TX), Washington Dept. of Fish & Wildlife (WA), Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WI). Written and compiled by Kimberli Miller, Kathryn Converse and Audra Schrader, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). The Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report is also available on the Internet at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/. To report mortality or if you would like specific information on these mortalities, contact one of the following NWHC staff: Western US Kathryn Converse; Eastern US--Kimberli Miller; Hawaiian Islands--Thierry Work. Phone (608) 270-2400, FAX (608) 270-2415 or E-mail kathy_converse@usgs.gov. National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Atlantic Brant in New Jersey Atlantic brant mortality, first noted at Edwin B. Forsyth NWR in New Jersey in November 2000, occurred again in mid January 2001, along the coast near Atlantic City. Over 700 brant were collected during each wave of mortality for a total of over 1400 birds. Necropsy observations during both events included tissue hemorrhage and lung edema. Attempts by a variety of methods, including electron microscopy, failed to detect viral or bacterial etiologic agents including West Nile virus, duck plague, Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Tests for botulinum toxins and rodenticides were negative and brain acetylcholinesterase activity was within normal limits. Multiple state and federal agencies collaborated on the diagnostic and field response to this event. Media interest was very high. Morbidity and Mortality in Florida Brown pelican morbidity and mortality was first noted in the Marquesas Keys, Florida in late December and continued intermittently through March. Affected birds appeared lethargic with droopy heads, had difficulty flying and swimming or were unable to move at all. There were no consistent necropsy findings in the several pelicans necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), no significant bacteria or viruses were isolated and tests for avian botulism type C and E were negative. However, two birds had moderate brain acetylcholinesterase activity depression (39% and 51%) and toxicology analysis will be pursued. Mortalities in loggerhead turtles have also occurred in southern Florida with nearly 150 sick and dead turtles found since September. Marine animal specialists have been working to determine the cause of this turtle mortality. A link between the pelican die-off and loggerhead deaths has not been established. Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) occurred in various locations during 2000, with the majority of cases occurring at Woodlake in North Carolina and J. Strom Thurmond/Clark's Hill Lake on the Georgia-South Carolina border. Each year there seems to be a change in the epizootiology of this disease. The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) documented the first loss of several bald eagles from AVM outside of Arkansas at J. Strom Thurmond/Clark's Hill Lake as well as AVM in several new species including 2 great horned owls, 1 killdeer and 3 Canada geese. Wildlife Disease Specialists from SCWDS and NWHC conducted a field investigation at the site in late November 2000. Based on diagnostic and research work to date, the cause of AVM is thought to be due to either a naturally occurring or man-made chemical. NWHC research with sentinel birds in North Carolina has shown that the occurrence of AVM is site specific and has a fairly rapid onset. A variety of agencies will continue research efforts to determine the cause of this disease and route of exposure. Avian Cholera in Arkansas Over 200 American coots died over a 2-week period in early January in Arkansas County, Arkansas. SCWDS confirmed the mortality was due to avian cholera. This is the first record of avian cholera mortality in Arkansas in either the NWHC or SCWDS databases. Louisiana Mortality Cowbird and blackbird mortality was noted in January and February 2001, over an extensive area of southern Louisiana. Salmonellosis was diagnosed by Louisiana State University. An estimated 100 cowbirds and blackbirds found dead and dying on a golf course in East Baton Rouge Parrish appear to be unrelated mortalities as brain acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be significantly depressed in several birds examined at NWHC. This is suggestive of recent exposure to an organophosphate compound. For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright , USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460.or Paul Slota , USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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