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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 2003 to September 2003

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AK Prudhoe Bay 07/10/03-07/30/03 Glaucous Gull 36(e) Starvation,
Plastic ingestion,
CA Delevan NWR 09/25/03-10/29/03 Mallard,
American Coot,
Ruddy Duck,
Northern Shoveler,
43 Open NW
CA Lower Klamath NWR 07/31/03-10/04/03 Gadwall,
Northern Pintail,
7,900 Botulism type C NW
CA Sacramento and Delevan NWR 07/10/03-ongoing Green-winged Teal,
Northern Pintail
200(e) Botulism type C NW
CA Sacramento and Delevan NWR 07/08/03-09/20/03 Mallard,
Green-winged Teal,
Northern Pintail,
Northern Shoveler,
236 Botulism type C NW
CA Salton Sea NWR 07/01/03-10/30/03 Ring-billed Gull,
California Gull,
Northern Shoveler,
Brown Pelican,
Green-winged Teal
92 Open,
Botulism (not typed)
CA Upper Klamath NWR 08/20/03-10/04/03 Gadwall,
Northern Pintail,
262 Botulism type C NW
CO Multiple Counties 07/30/03-10/01/03 Unidentified Raptor 500(e) Viral Infection: West Nile CDC
DC Bolling AFB 07/03/03-09/01/03 Gray Squirrel 35(e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW
FL Everglades NP 08/10/03-08/15/03 Cuban Tree Frog,
Green Tree Frog
2 Open,
Viral Infection,
Suspect: Iridovirus
FL Monroe County 04/15/03-04/15/03 Pilot Whale 5(e) Open,
FL, GA, SC Multiple Counties 03/12/03-ongoing Unidentified Bird 47(e) Eastern equine encephalitis FL, GA, SC
FL Seminole County 08/01/03-ongoing Black Vulture 4(e) Arthritis:septic,
Viral Infection: West Nile,
IL Cook County 07/02/03-08/15/03 Ring-billed Gull 70(e) Emaciation,
Botulism type C
IL Cook County 04/01/03-04/02/03 Canada (Interior) Goose 7 Toxicosis: diazinon IL
KS Lyon county 06/25/03-07/08/03 Purple Martin,
House Sparrow,
Barn Sparrow
8(e) Open SCW
KS Quivira NWR 07/26/03-07/08/03 American White Pelican 36(e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW
KY Fayette County 07/03/03-07/18/03 Mallard 15(e) Botulism type C KY, NW
MA Worcester County 07/22/03-10/01/03 Mallard,
Canada Goose
80(e) Botulism type C NW
MD Patuxent WRC 07/13/03-09/11/03 Southern Leopard Frog,
Pickerel Frog
1,000(e) Parasitism:
Perkinsus-like organism
MD Patuxent NWR 07/15/03-07/30/03 Green Frog 2 Open NW
MD Harford County 03/15/03-03/17/03 American Coot 5 Emaciation MD
ME Petit Manan NWR 07/01/03-09/01/03 Common Tern,
Arctic Tern,
Roseate Tern
500(e) Open NW, UME
ME Aroostook County 07/01/03-09/12/03 Bull Frog,
Green Frog
3,500(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
MI Manistee County 04/01/03-04/17/03 Trumpeter Swan 3(e) Open NW
MN Dakota County 08/11/03-08/18/03 Mallard 17 Open NW
MN Lac Qui Parle WMA 07/01/03-09/01/03 American White Pelican,
Ring-billed Gull,
Double-crested Cormorant,
Great Egret,
Canada Goose
3,500(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
MN Otter Tail County 08/17/03-08/27/03 American White Pelican,
Double-crested Cormorant
2 Viral Infection: West Nile NW
MN Traverse County 09/01/03-09/25/03 American Coot,
Unidentified Snipe,
Sora Rail,
Double-crested Cormorant,
Northern Shoveler
1,280(e) Botulism type C NW
MT Arod Lakes WPA 08/11/03-09/15/03 Northern Pintail,
American Avocet,
Red-tailed Hawk,
Unidentified Teal
428(e) Botulism type C,
Botulism suspect
MT Bowdoin NWR 08/01/03-09/25/03 American White Pelican,
Northern Pintail,
Northern Shoveler,
Green-winged Teal,
123 Viral Infection: West Nile,
Botulism type C
MT Cascade County 08/31/03-09/04/03 Canada Goose,
Domestic/hybrid Goose
29 Botulism type C MT, NW
MT Medicine Lake NWR 07/23/03-08/29/03 American White Pelican 566(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
Botulism suspect
ND Audubon NWR 08/16/03-09/03/03 American White Pelican 40(e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW
ND Chase Lake NWR 07/15/03-09/01/03 Ring-billed Gull,
American White Pelican
2,000(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
Botulism type C
ND Ramsey County 08/01/03-09/10/03 Northern Shoveler,
American Avocet
25(e) Botulism type C NW
ND Kidder County 07/10/03-08/19/03 Ring-billed Gull,
American White Pelican,
Eared Grebe,
Western Grebe
717 Viral Infection: West Nile NW
ND Lake Alice NWR 07/26/03-09/10/03 Mallard,
Northern Pintail,
American Coot,
Ruddy Duck
50 Botulism type C,
Botulism suspect
ND Kulm WMD 07/06/03-09/10/03 Ring-billed Gull,
Double-crested Cormorant
2,359 Salmonellosis,
Viral Infection: West Nile,
ND Tewaukon NWR 07/31/03-09/10/03 Canada Goose,
American White Pelican
8 Botulism type,
Viral Infection: West Nile
NE Knox County 08/04/03-09/12/03 Least Interior Tern,
Piping Plover,
Canada Goose
11 Open NW
NE Morrill County 07/26/03-08/26/03 Canada Goose 9(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
NM Colfax County 09/29/03-10/02/03 Sandhill Crane 5 Trauma: impact NW
NV Stillwater NWR 08/11/03-09/24/03 Mallard,
American Wigeon,
Northern Pintail,
Clark's Grebe,
52 Botulism type C NW
NY, VT Lake Champlain 07/10/03-09/15/03 Double-crested Cormorant,
Ring-billed Gull
300 Newcastle,
Disease Virus
NY Kings County 06/25/03-10/10/03 Unidentified Gull,
Double-crested Cormorant
30(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
NY Oswego County 07/10/03-09/15/03 Double-crested Cormorant 50(e) Newcastle,
Disease Virus suspect
OH Cuyahoga County 07/16/03-08/10/03 Mallard 60(e) Botulism type C NW
OK Tulsa County 08/11/03-08/11/03 Mallard 3 Toxicosis: organophosphorus compound NW
ONT Lake Ontario 08/01/03-ongoing Fish,
Great Black-backed Gull,
Unidentified Gull
4 Botulism suspect NYS
OR Multnomah County 09/08/03-10/09/03 Unidentified Dowitcher,
Western Sandpiper,
Unidentified Plover,
Unidentified Yellowlegs,
125(e) Avian cholera suspect OR
PA Potter County 08/02/03-08/20/03 Mourning Dove 24(e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis NW
PA, NY, ONT Lake Erie 07/15/03-ongoing Fish,
Common Loon,
Ring-billed Gull,
Long-tailed Duck,
Unidentified Gull
120(e) Botulism type E,
Botulism suspect
SC Charleston County 04/15/03-05/08/03 Northern Gannet 4 Emaciation,
Toxicosis: organochlorine suspect
SD Waubay NWR 07/28/03-08/28/03 American White Pelican,
Ring-billed Gull,
Double-crested Cormorant,
365(e) Viral Infection: West Nile,
SD Lake Andes NWR 08/15/03-09/02/03 American White Pelican 5 Viral Infection: West Nile NW
SD Charles Mix County 09/08/03-10/07/03 Gadwall,
Pectoral Sandpiper,
Lesser Yellowlegs,
Northern Shoveler
500(e) Botulism suspect NW
TN Meigs County 09/15/03-10/15/03 White-tailed Deer 150(e) Epizootic hemorrhagic disease SCW
TX McLennan County 07/31/03-08/07/03 Cattle Egret 200(e) Salmonellosis NW
TX Brewster County 08/15/03-09/27/03 White-winged Dove 30 Open NW
TX Santa Ana NWR 07/02/03-08/13/03 Black-bellied Tree Duck 235(e) Toxicosis: salt NW
TX Multiple counties 08/01/03-ongoing Unidentified Raptor,
Prairie Dog
500(e) Open TX
VA Northampton County 07/14/03-07/15/03 Canada Goose 15 Open: toxicosis suspect NW
VA James City 09/01/03-ongoing Muscovy 7(e) Open,
VA Stafford County 08/06/13-08/07/03 House Sparrow 104(e) Trauma: storm VA
VA Multiple Counties 07/01/03-10/15/03 Unidentified Hawk,
Unidentified Owl,
1,000(e) Viral Infection: West Nile VA
VA Virginia Beach County 07/20/03-08/25/03 Southern Leopard Frog 20(e) Open,
Viral Infection: Rana virus
VA Vriginia Beach County 09/27/03-10-10/03 Mallard,
Common Grackle,
Rock Dove
22 Toxicosis: organophosphorus cmpd. suspect NW
WI Outagamie County 08/01/03-08/16/03 Mallard 30 Botulism type C NW, WI
WI Brown County 07/18/03-09/01/03 Double-crested Cormorant 100(e) Newcastle Disease Virus NW
WI LaCrosse County 08/17/03-08/18/03 Mallard 4 Open NW, WI
WI Door County 09/22/03-10/02/03 Mallard,
Canada Goose,
Great Blue Heron
76 Botulism type C NW, WI
WI Marinette County 08/01/03-08/07/03 Turkey 4 Pneumonia,
Toxicosis: suspect
WI Upper Mississippi NWR 09/18/03-ongoing American Coot,
Lesser Scaup,
Northern Pintail,
Ruddy Duck
3,000 Parasitism: Sphaeridiotrema globulus,
Parasitism: Cyathocoyle bushiensis,
Parasitism: coccidiosis
WY Fremont County 08/01/03-ongoing Sage Grouse 15(e) Open WY
WY Yellowstone NP 08/08/03-09/05/03 Columbia spotted Frog 70(e) Parasitism: trematodiasis NW
WY Seedskadee NWR 06/28/03-09/17/03 Cottontail (Mountain) Rabbit,
Unidentified Jackrabbit
15(e) Tularemia NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AR Ouachita County 05/05/03-08/12/03 Mourning Dove 40(e) Ingluviitis AR
MD Wicomico County 04/01/97-09/01/03 Red-eared Slider Turtle,
Painted Turtle
60(e) Osteodystroph,
US All continental states except ID, OR, NV, WA 01/08/03-ongoing Blue Jay,
American Crow,
Northern Cardinal,
Unidentified Sparrow,
Common Grackle
10,217(e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW, ST

(e) = estimate

New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation (NYS), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WI), University of Maine (UME), National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVL), University of Florida Veterinary Medical Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (UFL), Center for Disease Control (CDC), Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center (CCW), Nebraska Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (NEB), New York City Dept. of Health (NYC), Arkansas Livestock and Poultry (AR), Florida Fish and Wildlife Resources (KY), Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MT), Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife (OR), Virginia Dept. of Game and Inland Fisheries (VA), State Diagnostic Laboratories (ST).

Written and compiled by Kathryn Converse/Rex Sohn = Western US, Kimberli Miller/Grace McLaughlin - Eastern US, NWHC. The Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report is available at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov. To report mortality or receive information about this report, contact the above NWHC staff, or for Hawaiian Islands contact Thierry Work. Phone: (608) 270-2400, FAX:(608) 270-2415 or e-mail: kathy_converse@usgs.gov. USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Black-bellied Tree Duck Mortality in Texas. For the second consecutive year, mortality of newly hatched Black-bellied tree duck chicks was observed at La Sal Vieja in Willacy County, Texas. During daily observations, USFWS biologists recorded twenty broods containing 217 chicks leaving two nesting islands on this hyper saline inland lake; one hundred forty five (67%) of the 18-24 hour old ducklings died before reaching the mainland. A search of the nesting islands identified 40 additional dead chicks. Clinical signs observed in ducklings included convulsions and salt accumulation on feathers and around the eyes. Freshly dead carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for diagnostic evaluation. The brains from the ducklings had sodium concentrations of >2,000 ppm, wet weight, that are indicative of sodium toxicity.

Cormorant Newcastle Disease in Wisconsin, New York, Vermont. Cormorant Newcastle virus (CNV), also known as cormorant paramyxovirus-1, was isolated from several double-crested cormorants collected in Green Bay, Wisconsin; Lake Oneida, New York; and Lake Champlain in New York and Vermont. Morbidity and mortality were first noted among hatch-year cormorants in July 2003. Newcastle disease virus was isolated in Wisconsin cormorants by NWHC and in New York and Vermont cormorants by the USDA National Veterinary Services Lab (NVSL). NVSL provided molecular characterization of CNV in birds from all three states. In addition of cormorant Newcastle virus, trauma and Salmonella, Aspergillis and helminth infections were causes of death in cormorants from these colonies. Morbidity and mortality were low, with less than one percent of these young cormorants affected.

Trematode-related Mortality in Upper Mississippi River waterbirds. Since mid-September, over 3,000 American coots and ducks have died from infection by the trematodes Sphaeridiotrema globulus (snail host Bithynia) and Cyathocotyle bushiensis (host snail Planorbella). the mortality is concentrated in Pool 7 (Lake Onalaska) of the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge. No Bithynia snails have been found in sampling at this site and the source for the birds is unknown. Sphaeridiotrema globulus was the most prevalent organism in birds necropsied at NWHC with levels as high as 1,500 trematodes per bird. Similar mortality caused by the same species of trematodes occurred at this site during the fall 2002 and spring 2003 migrations.

Tularemia in Wyoming rabbits. Mortality was reported in 15 cottontail and jack rabbits on the Seedskadee NWR in southwestern Wyoming from June through September. Tularemia was confirmed in two rabbits submitted to the NWHC in september. Wyoming Department of Health officials have been in contact with refuge staff. No human cases were reported. Similar mortality of about 15 rabbits also occurred during the summer of 2002.

West Nile virus in White pelicans. West Nile virus was the suspected cause of death of over 5,000 white pelicans during the summer of 2003 in the north central states of Montana, North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Kansas. West Nile virus was confirmed in adult and immature birds but the greatest losses occurred in pre-fledgling pelicans still on the nesting colonies. Pelican chicks were observed to be in the areas with high densities of mosquitoes. The loss of young pelicans ranged as high as 68% at some colonies. During this same time period, West Nile virus was confirmed in 3,000 gulls in North and South Dakota and Minnesota; and low numbers of cormorants in Minnesota and Canada geese in North Dakota.

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