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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 2005 to September 2005

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AK Cape Glazenap and Operl Island 07/20/05-08/07/05 Short-Tailed Shearwater, Fulmar, Glaucous Gull, Common Murre, Unidentified Kittiwake
149 Emaciation NW
AZ Lakeview and Flagstaff 07/04/05-07/22/05 Red Crossbill, Lesser GoldFinch, Pine Siskin, Mourning Dove, 20 Salmonellosis NW
CA Alameda NWR, Alameda Point 06/03/05-08/25/05 California Least Tern 274 Undetermined  
CA Delevan NWR and Sacramento NWR 07/10/05-10/20/05 Mallard, American White Pelican 320 Botulism type C NW
CA Lake Isabella 08/12/05-09/15/05 Clark's Grebe, Western Grebe 1,000(e) Open
CA Sacramento NWR 07/01/05-07/20/05 House Finch, American GoldFinch 15 Viral Infection: WNV suspect NW
CA Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains 07/25/05-08/15/05 Bighorn Sheep 7 Bronchopneumonia CAF
CA Tule Lake NWR 08/09/05-10/05/05 Gadwall, American Coot, Mallard, Scaup, Lesser Pintail 1447 Botulism type C NW
DE Woodland Beach Wildlife Area 08/12/05-08/14/05 Semipalmated Sandpiper, Lesser Yellowlegs 10 (e) Toxicosis: suspect NW
GA Brunswick, 07/03/05-07/28/05 Canada Goose 24 (e) Open SCW
ID Lewiston 04/01/05-06/30/05 Red Crossbill, Pine Siskin 28 Salmonellosis ID
IN Hammond, George Lake 09/01/05-09/23/05 Mallard, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Least Sandpiper, Killdeer, Semipalmated Plover 60 (e) Botulism type C NW, PUL
MA Monomoy NWR South Monomoy Is. 07/23/05-09/01/05 Common Tern 2,600 (e) Salmonellosis NW, TU
MD City Yacht Basin, Havre de Grace 08/08/05-09/30/05 Mallard, Unidentified Gull, Canada goose, Great Blue Heron 136 (e) Botulism type C MD, NW
MD Coaches & Poplar Islands, Chesapeake Bay 09/14/05-12/01/05 Great Blue Heron 20 Steatitis NW
MD Poplar Island, Chesapeake Bay 08/15/05-12/01/05 Laughing Gull, Common Tern, Unidentified Gull, Great Black-Backed Gull, Mute Swan 40(e) Botulism type C NW
ME Acadia NP 07/11/05-07/24/05 Wood Frog, Green Frog 50 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
MI Townsend Park, near Grand Rapids 08/20/05-10/15/05 White-Tailed Deer 15 (e) Eastern equine encephalitis MSU
MN Lac Qui Parle 07/02/05-08/15/05 American White Pelican 1,800 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile virus NW
MN Lake Superior 09/07/05-09/07/05 Unidentified Warbler, White-Throated, Swainsons Thrush 100 (e) Trauma: weather MN
MN Mud Lake 09/01/05-09/20/05 Mallard , Teal - Blue-Winged, American Coot, Teal - Green-Winged, Unidentified 900 (e) Botulism suspect MNS
MT Bowdoin NWR 06/30/05-09/30/05 Wigeon, American Eared Grebe, American Coot, Teal - Green-Winged 35 (e) Botulism type C NW
MT Medicine Lake NWR 06/23/05-08/18/05 American White Pelican 300 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile virus NW
MT Stinger Creek 09/01/05-09/07/05 Northern Leopard Frog 3 (e) Open NW
ND Chase Lake NWR 06/17/05-08/23/05 American White Pelican 1,500 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile virus NW
ND Horsehead Lake 07/18/05-08/29/05 Ring-Billed Gull, Eared Grebe, NOS Sandpiper, American Coot, Franklin's Gull 186 (e) Botulism type C NW
ND Lake Sakakawea 07/25/05-07/25/05 Common Tern 13 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile virus NW
NE Keith County, Lake McConaughty 09/19/05-09/25/05 Teal - Green-Winged 200 (e) Botulism type C NW
NV Anaho Island NWR 08/09/05-09/15/05 Double-Crested Cormorant, American White Pelican 130 (e) Newcastle Disease Virus NW, NVL
NV Humboldt Sink 07/21/05-09/06/05 American White Pelican 45 Viral Infection: West Nile virus NV, NW
NV Las Vegas Valley 06/01/05-09/12/05 Duck, Unidentified, American Coot, White-Faced Ibis, Killdeer, Black-Necked Stilt 102 Botulism type C CAF
OH Grigg's Reservoir Park, Columbus 09/10/05-09/15/05 Hybrid, Domestic, Mallard 10 (e) Botulism suspect NW
OH Grigg's Reservoir Park, Columbus 07/15/05-08/15/05 Mallard Hybrid, Domestic duck 30 (e) Botulism type C NW
OH Urbana City Park, Urbana 08/13/05-08/19/05 Hybrid, Domestic duck, Canada Goose 15(e) Botulism suspect NW
OR Coastal Beach 2 miles South of Newport 07/10/05-10/31/05 Common Murre, Brandt's Cormorant 360 Emaciation NW
SD Bitter Lake, Waubay NWR 07/06/05-08/18/05 American White Pelican 1,000 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile virus NW
UT Bear River MBR 07/25/05-09/15/05 Duck, Unidentified, Pintail, American Avocet, White-Faced Ibis, Mallard 6,000 (e) Botulism type C NW
VA Byrd Park, Richmond 07/25/05-08/19/05 Mallard, Canada goose, Unidentified, Domestic Or Hybrid Goose 26 Botulism suspect VA
VA Cedar Island 08/10/05-08/25/05 Laughing Gull, Black Skimmer, Herring Gull, Great Black-Backed Gull, Black-Bellied Plover 100 (e) Botulism type C NW, VA
WA Ocean Shores 07/15/05-ongoing Alaskan Sea Otter 3 Parasitism: Protozoal encephalitis NW
WA Pend Oreille River Between Usk and Cusick 07/01/05-08/01/05 Double-Crested Cormorant 25 (e) Starvation WAS
WI Appleton 08/23/05-09/15/05 Mallard 60 (e) Botulism type C NW, WVL
WI Channel 15, NWHC 09/14/05-09/14/05 Ovenbird, Black and White Warbler, Unidentified Warbler, Red-Eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler 400 (e) Trauma: tower strike NW
WI Green Bay 07/25/05-09/01/05 Double-Crested Cormorant, American White Pelican 20 (e) Botulism type C NW, WI
WI Horicon Marsh Wildlife Area 09/23/05-ongoing Shoveler, Teal - Green-Winged, Pectoral Sandpiper, Wood, Teal - Blue-Winged 60 (e) Botulism type C NW
WI Horicon NWR 07/15/05-08/08/05 Mallard, Wood, Teal - Blue-Winged, Teal - Green-Winged, Unidentified 5,600 (e) Botulism type C NW
WI Lake Onalaska, Upper Miss NWR 08/30/05-ongoing American Coot, Scaup Lesser, Teal - Blue-Winged, Ring-Necked; Mallard 4,350 (e) Parasitism: Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaerioiotrema globulus NW
WI Nelson Lake 09/22/05-09/26/05 American Coot 10 Trauma: gunshot NW
WI W. of Fredonia 07/27/05-07/27/05 Canada Goose 10 Open: toxicosis NW, WI
WY Lodge Creek Lagoon 08/25/05-09/09/05 Columbia Spotted Frog 41 (e) Fungal Infection chytrid NW
WY Yellowstone NP, Gibbon Meadows 06/30/05-06/30/05 Western Toad 2 Viral Infection (suspect): Iridovirus NW
WY Yellowstone NP, near Tanager Lake 07/15/05-08/01/05 Columbia Spotted Frog 100 (e) Viral Infection (suspect): Iridovirus NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
FL Atlantic coast/beaches Orange, Nassau, St. Johns, Volusia, Brevard Co.'s 06/09/05-08/01/05 Greater Shearwater, Unidentified Gull, NOS Shearwater, Northern Gannet, Unidentified Tern 734 Starvation FMR, NMF, NW, SCW, UFL
WA Yakima, Selah, and Tieton 05/31/05-06/30/05 Evening Grosbeak 234 Salmonellosis NW, WA

(e) = estimate; * = morbidity, not mortality

California Animal Health FS Laboratory Network (CAF), Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FL), Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, St. Petersburg, FL (FMR), Idaho Wildlife Health Laboratory, Boise, Idaho (ID), Maryland Diagnostic Laboratory (MD), Michigan State University (MSU), Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MNS), Nevada Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (NV), National Veterinary Services Laboratory, Ames, IA (NVL), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMF), Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (PUL), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Athens, GA (SCW), Tufts, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (TU), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), University of Florida (UFL), Virginia Game and Fish (VA), Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVL), Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WI), Washing Department of Fish and Wildlife (WAS), and Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (WA)

Written and compiled by Rex Sohn -Western US, Kathryn Converse- Central US, Grace McLaughlin - Eastern US, NWHC. The Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report is available at http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov. To report mortality or receive information about this report, contact the above NWHC staff, or for Hawaiian Islands contact Thierry Work. Phone: (608) 270-2400, FAX: (608) 270-2415 or e-mail: kathy_converse@usgs.gov. USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

White Pelican Mortality due to West Nile Virus
In late July 2005 wildlife biologists from the Nevada Department of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began observing sick and dead American white pelicans at saline wetlands in western Nevada. Over 90% of the pelicans observed were adults and 45 affected pelicans were picked up at the wetlands through early September. Sick birds were lethargic and lacked muscle coordination. Oral swabs from seven birds were confirmed positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by the State of Nevada WNV surveillance system. Subsequently, two of three adult pelicans submitted to the NWHC for diagnostic evaluation were positive for WNV by virus isolation. Significant mortality of juvenile American white pelicans also continued for the fourth consecutive year in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota colonies. Similarly, mortality first noted in late June and July, continued until the birds fledged in August. Banding and surveillance data are being analyzed to determine the overall losses and fledging success in these colonies. There is concern that continued annual WNV mortality will have a negative impact on this species. If histopathology links the pelican mortality in Nevada to WNV, it will be the first reported mortality event involving primarily adult white pelicans.

Newcastle Disease in Nevada Double-crested Cormorants
During routine colonial nesting bird surveys at Anaho Island NWR on 8/16/06, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists discovered 10 dead and 3 sick double-crested cormorant fledglings at a nesting colony with an estimated population of 2,000 cormorants. The sick fledglings, which showed some degree of flaccid paralysis and hemorrhage from the mouth, were euthanized and submitted to the NWHC. Hemagglutination inhibition tests identified virus isolates as NDV. Samples of the viruses were sent to the USDA National Veterinary Services Lab, which confirmed the identification as NDV and determined that the isolates were highly pathogenic for chickens. NVSL conducted genetic analysis of the virus isolates and reported that they were different from the NDV strain that affected domestic poultry in southern California, Nevada and Texas in 2002 and 2003. However, the viruses were determined to have a high genetic homology with strains isolated from double-crested cormorants in the United States since 1992.

Botulism type C at Bear River MBR
From late July to mid-September U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel picked up the carcasses of approximately 6,000 waterbirds from a 1,800 acre wetland management unit at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge at the Northeast edge of the Great Salt Lake. The primary species involved were dabbling ducks and small wading birds. Ducks that were submitted to the NWHC in early August were positive for botulism type C toxin. The birds were negative for West Nile virus by virus isolation. Bear River MBR has a history of major botulism die-offs tracing back to the early part of the twentieth century. No significant mortality due to botulism type C has been documented since 1997 and 1998; More than 500,000 birds were estimated dead in 1997 and 10,627 birds were picked up in 1998.

Trematodiasis at Upper Mississippi National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin (UMNWR).
Blue wing teal began succumbing to trematodiasis in late August, the first time the small puddle ducks have been involved in the seven recurring outbreaks at the UMNWR since Fall 2002. Mortality attributed to infection by two tiny flukes, Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Cyathocotyle bushiensis, had its earliest start yet for waterfowl in their fall migration period. By the end of August, nearly 200 teal and about two dozen other dabbling ducks, including mallards, shovelers, pintail and black ducks, had been found dead. The birds were feeding in wild rice beds in an area of UMNWR where mortality from the trematodes had not previously been recorded. Carcasses of each species found were submitted to the NWHC for necropsies. Ongoing research on the distribution of invertebrates on the UMRNWR and in nearby waterways will help to determine if the non-native faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata, which can act as both primary and secondary host to the flukes, is increasing its range in the Mississippi River. Monitoring of later-arriving coots and diving ducks will provide data for comparison to die-offs in previous years.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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