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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 2007 to September 2007

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
CA Redwood State/National Parks 07/14/07-09/15/07 Rhinoceros Auklet, Common Murre 300 (e) Emaciation: Starvation suspect NW
CA Tule Lake NWR 07/22/07-09/18/07 Mallard, Northern Pintail, American Coot, Gadwall, Northern Shoveler 1,115 Botulism type C, NW
CA Sacramento NWR Complex 08/14/07-09/10/07 Mallard, American White Pelican, White-Faced Ibis, Green-Winged Teal, Sandpiper, NOS 35 Botulism type C, Electrocution, Trauma, Predation NW
DC Various Metro Stations 07/29/07-07/29/07 European Starling, House Sparrow 60 (e) Toxicosis suspect UNK
DE Silver Lake 07/03/07-09/20/07 Mallard 12 Botulism type C NW, PAD
FL Lake Monroe 06/15/07-07/09/07 Mallard, Hybrid 75 (e) Botulism type C KDL, NW, SCW
FL Alachua County 07/26/07-07/27/07 Muscovy, Pekin duck, Mallard 10 (e) Botulism type C KDL, NW
IL Cook County 07/04/07-07/08/07 Mallard, Bufflehead 12 (e) Botulism type C NW, UIL
IL Lake County 07/15/07-08/01/07 Common Tern 48 (e) Undetermined NW
IL Cook County 08/10/07-09/10/07 Mallard, Canada Goose, (Giant, Interior, Lesser) 50 (e) Botulism type C NW
KY Lake Cumberland 06/30/07-07/16/07 Canada Goose, (Giant, Interior, Lesser), Mallard, Domestic 32 Botulism type C KY, NW
MA Monomoy NWR 07/22/07-07/26/07 Common Tern 15 (e) Trauma, Salmonellosis NW
MA Great Island 08/27/07-09/20/07 Common Eider 500 (e) Open NW
MD Culler Lake 07/07/07-07/10/07 Mallard, Hybrid, Green Heron 12 (e) Botulism type C, Undetermined MD, NW
MD Whittier Lake 07/20/07-07/24/07 Mallard 6 Botulism type C NW
MD Taylor’s Island 09/06/07-09/10/07 Mallard 6 Open NW
MN Lac qui Parle State Park 06/15/07-09/15/07 American White Pelican, Ring-Billed Gull, Double-Crested Cormorant, Unidentified Goose, Mallard 3,850 (e) Botulism type C, Newcastle Disease Virus, Open NW
MN Cass County 09/01/07-09/27/07 Ring-Billed Gull, Double-Crested Cormorant, Herring Gull, Caspian Tern, American White Pelican 400 (e) Avian Cholera, Newcastle Disease Virus NW
MO St. Louis County 08/27/07-09/01/07 House Finch 10 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile, Parasitism:Trichomoniasis NW
MT Bowdoin NWR 07/14/07-10/01/07 Gadwall, American Wigeon, Northern Pintail, Blue-Winged Teal, Mallard 500 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile, Botulism type C NW
MT Eyraud Lakes 07/25/07-08/06/07 Ring-Billed Gull, California Gull 35 (e) Botulism type C NW
MT Multiple Counties 08/01/07-10/25/07 Pronghorn Antelope, White-Tailed Deer ** Bluetongue virus MT, SCW,WY
MT Lincoln County 08/05/07-08/07/07 American Robin, Pine Siskin 5 Undetermined NW
MT Gallatin County 08/15/07-08/31/07 Gray Catbird 12 Aflatoxicosis NW
MT Georgetown Lake 09/19/07-ongoing American Coot 1,650 Parasitism: Cyathocotyle bushiensis NW
ND Chase Lake 07/07/07-09/15/07 American White Pelican 200 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile, Salmonellosis, Botulism type C NW
ND Upper Souris NWR 07/18/07-08/02/07 Duck, unidentified, Mallard, Gadwall, Blue-Winged Teal, American Coot 520 (e) Botulism type C NW
ND Grand Forks County 07/25/07-09/01/07 Mallard, Gadwall, Blue-Winged Teal, Shorebird, unidentified, Yellowlegs, unidentified 300 (e) Botulism type C NW
ND Williams County 08/01/07-09/17/07 Ring-Billed Gull, Blue-Winged Teal, Gadwall, Mallard 75 Viral Infection: West Nile NW
ND Cass County 08/16/07-09/27/07 Ring-Billed Gull, Duck, unidentified, Western Grebe, Canada Goose, (Giant, Interior, Lesser), American White Pelican 24 Botulism type C NW
NM Sandoval County 06/24/07-07/20/07 American Coot, Duck or Goose, unidentified 10 (e) Botulism type C NW
NM Santa Fe County 09/23/07-09/25/07 Mountain Chickadee 30 Undetermined NW
NV NYE County 07/16/07-07/26/07 Horse, Feral 71 Toxicosis: Nitrate UCD
NY Lake Erie 07/01/07-07/23/07 Ring-Billed Gull 3,000 (e) Undetermined NY
OR Baker County 07/30/07-10/21/07 Western Toad 180 (e) Fungal infection: Chytrid NW
OR Clatsop Cty Beaches – Pacific Cty Beaches 08/01/07-09/01/07 Double-Crested Cormorant 47 (e) Newcastle Disease Virus NW
OR Willamette River 08/04/07-08/09/07 Canada Goose, (Giant, Interior, Lesser) 14 Toxicosis: Rodenticide NW, OR
SD Waubay NWR 07/09/07-09/15/07 American White Pelican 1,300 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW
SD Sand Lake NWR 07/18/07-08/20/07 Franklin's Gull, Ring-Billed Gull, Mallard, Eared Grebe, Wood duck 61 (e) Botulism type C NW
TX Galveston County Beaches, Aransas and Nueces Counties 06/07/07-6/30/07 Northern Gannet 100 (e) Emaciation: Starvation suspect HZ, NW
UT Davis County 06/04/07-08/01/07 American Avocet, Franklin's Gull, Black-Necked Stilt, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall 230 (e) Botulism type C NW
UT Salt Lake County 09/15/07-10/02/07 Mallard 75 (e) Botulism type C NW
WA Okanogan County 07/01/07-07/01/07 Cliff Swallow 70 (e) Trauma NW
WA Gray Harbor and Clallam Counties 07/24/07-08/01/07 Little Gull, Mew Gull, California Gull 30 (e) Emaciation: Starvation suspect NW
WI Little Lake Butte Des Morts 07/18/07-08/15/07 Mallard, American White Pelican, Wood duck, Ring-Billed Gull, Kingfisher, unidentified 300 (e) Botulism type C NW, WI
WI Upper Mississippi River NWFR 09/26/07-ongoing American Coot, Lesser Scaup, Ruddy duck, Mallard, Gadwall, Ring-necked duck ** Parasitism: Trematodiasis NW
WY Multiple Counties 08/01/07-11/01/07 Pronghorn Antelope, White-Tailed Deer ** Bluetongue virus MT, SCW, WY
WY Yellowstone National Park 08/22/07-10/11/07 Columbia Spotted Frog 75 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
  Multiple States 08/01/07-ongoing White-Tailed Deer ** Epizootic, Hemorrhagic Disease OT, PSU, SCW, ST
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
CO Denver, Jefferson, and Arapahoe Counties 05/01/07-07/19/07 Fox Squirrel, Rabbit, unidentified, Domestic Cat, Coyote 50 Sylvatic Plague CPH

(e) = estimate, ** Mortality estimate not available at this time.

Houston Zoo (HZ), Kentucky State Diagnostic Laboratory (KY), Kissimmee Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (KDL), Maryland Diagnostic Laboratory (MD), Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks Diagnostic Lab (MT), New York State, DEC, Division of Fish, Wildlife & Marine Resources (NY), Oregon State Diagnostic Laboratory (OR), Other (OT), Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Lab System (PAD), Pennsylvania State University Animal Diagnostics Lab (PSU), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW), UC Davis (UCD), University of Illinois Lab (UIL), Unknown lab site (UNK), USGS National Wildlife Health Laboratory (NW), Various state lab sites (ST), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Health Lab (WI), Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WY).

Written and compiled by: Mark Jankowski - Eastern US, Krysten Schuler - Western US, and Jennifer Buckner - Technician.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711:

Eastern United States

Mark Jankowski
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
Phone: (608) 270-2443
FAX: (608) 270-2415
Email: mjankowski@usgs.gov

Western United States

Krysten Schuler
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
Phone: (608) 270-2447
FAX: (608) 270-2415
Email: kschuler@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Islands

Thierry Work
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

National Wildlife Health Center Quarterly Mortality Report

Second year of high American coot mortality in MontanaIn mid-September and for the second consecutive year, significant mortality due to exotic parasites has been observed in American coots on Georgetown Lake (Deer Lodge County: mortality ~200) and Smith Lake (Flathead County; mortality ~1500). The estimated mortality on Georgetown Lake is higher than the mortality estimates in 2006. American coots examined at the National Wildlife Health Center had intestinal impactions and were found to be infected with Cyathacotyle bushiensis and coccidia parasites. The intermediate host of the parasites is the exotic Bithynia tentaculata snail which was identified in the lakes in 2006.

West Nile virus in American white pelican chicks.West Nile virus outbreaks have occurred in American white pelicans in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Some locations have had ongoing botulism events. The events have resulted in total mortality estimates of over 1500 hatch-year pelican chicks. Birds were exhibiting signs of weakness: unable to stand, falling over, and inability to hold their head up. Mortality events appear to have ended around mid to late September. Biologists are encouraged to report morbidity/mortality and submit samples for diagnostics to determine cause-of-death because of the coincident outbreaks.

Avian cholera and Newcastle disease virus outbreak at atypical time and location.In northern Minnesota in early September, an avian cholera mortality event affected ring-billed gulls, herring gulls, American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and Caspian terns. An estimated 400 birds were affected. There is no previous record of avian cholera in this area. Herring gulls exhibited enlarged livers and spleen, as well as pericarditis which is characteristic of Chlamydiosis, a potentially zoonotic bacteria. Subsequent bacterial cultures in herring gull and cormorant tissues were positive for Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterial agent of avian cholera. Non-virulent Newcastle disease virus (nvNDV*) also was found in the cormorant, leading to the question of which infection developed first, and whether dual infection exacerbated the effects of either agent. This outbreak demonstrates the complexities of dual infections in a location frequented by multiple species.

Newcastle disease virus and botulism type C outbreak in Minnesota involving American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and ring-billed gulls. During July, American white pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and ring-billed gulls died as part of a mortality event in southwest Minnesota that claimed an estimated 3,850 birds. Between 2002 and 2006, West Nile virus was identified as the cause of American white pelican mortality in this area, primarily in hatch-year birds. Although this mortality event was suspected as a continuation of this process, WNV was not detected. Instead, American white pelicans and ring-billed gulls died from botulism type C and double-crested cormorants were infected with non-virulent Newcastle disease virus (nvNDV*). It has not yet been determined whether nvNDV acted as the principal cause of death in these cormorants.

* The non-virulent (nvNDV) designation is determined by PCR test and refers to the virus' pathogenicity in poultry.

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