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National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
April 2010 to June 2010

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Labsitea
CA Los Angeles County 02/01/09-04/01/10 Raccoon, Striped Skunk, Coyote, Red Fox 151 Canine distemper CFG
CA Riverside and Imperial Counties 05/13/10-ongoing Tilapia, American Coot, California Gull, Hawaiian Stilt, Black Brant 27 Open NW
CO Denver 06/17/10-ongoing Mallard, Double-crested Cormorant, Black-crowned Night-Heron 115 Botulism type C CO
CO Telluride Beaver Pond 04/20/10-05/01/10 Beaver 8 Tularemia CO
DE Sussex County 06/28/10-06/29/10 Canada Goose 5 Emaciation, Botulism suspect NW
FL Brevard and Volusia Counties 01/01/10-04/30/10 Bottlenose Dolphin 40 Emaciation, Weather conditions suspect HSW
FL Boca Raton 06/24/10-07/07/10 Greater Shearwater 150 (e) Emaciation NW
MD Seth Forest 05/15/10-05/20/10 Southern Leopard Frog, Green Frog, Spotted Salamander 100(e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus suspect NW
MI Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 06/06/10-ongoing Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull 201 (e) Botulism type E NW
MN Mountain Lake and Bingham Lake 05/15/10-**** Purple Martin 6 Open: emaciation NW
MT Rattlesnake Lake 04/01/10-05/01/10 Lesser Scaup, Gadwall, American Wigeon, Ring-necked Duck, Redhead Duck 12 Parasitism: trematodiasis NON
ND Lake Sakakawea 05/15/10-05/17/10 Caspian Tern, Herring Gull, California Gull, Ring-billed Gull, American White Pelican 20 (e) Botulism Type E, Trauma suspect NW
NH White Mountain NF 03/02/10-04/30/10 Little Brown Bat 100 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome presumptive NW
NV Clark County 06/01/10-08/05/10 American Avocet, Mallard 9 Trauma NW
PA Bucks County 12/16/09-04/30/10 Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored), Northern Long-eared Bat, Little Brown Bat 4,500 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
PA Allegheny County 04/15/10-06/17/10 Common Grackle 20 (e) Toxicosis suspect NW
UT Bear River MBR 04/01/10-08/01/10 Gadwall, Northern Pintail, Northern Shoveler 50 (e) Trauma, Avian cholera suspect NW
VA Fisherman Island NWR 04/06/10-04/07/10 Northern Gannet 5 (e) Trauma NW
VA Newport News County 06/22/10-07/09/10 Evening Bat 50 (e) Emaciation, Parasitism, external, NOS NW
VA Virginia Beach 06/08/10-07/09/10 Muscovy Duck, Mallard 33 (e) Botulism suspect NW
VA Montgomery County 06/13/10-**** Bat, Unidentified 10 Parasitism, external, NOS NW
WA Spokane County 06/22/10-06/26/10 Cedar Waxwing 20 (e) Toxicosis: cyanide NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Labsitea
FL Fort Pierce 03/01/10-03/18/10 Eastern Brown Pelican 15 (e) Botulism suspect FL
MD Baltimore 10/02/09-10/02/09 Green Frog, American Toad 102 Euthanized, Fungal Infection: Chytrid (incidental finding) SDZ
PA Blair County 02/09/10-04/30/10 Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored), Bat, Little Brown 4 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome presumptive NON
PA Carbon County 01/21/10-04/30/10 Northern Long-eared Bat, Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored), Little Brown Bat 1,000 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome presumptive NON
PA Huntingdon County 01/27/10-04/30/10 Bat, Northern Long-eared Bat, Little Brown, Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored) 0 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome presumptive NON
PA Lycoming County 01/26/10-04/30/10 Northern Long-eared Bat, Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored), Little Brown Bat 24 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome presumptive NON
TX Houston 03/26/10-**** Cedar Waxwing 50 (e) Toxicosis: ethanol NW

(e) = estimate, **** Cessation date not available at this time, NOS = Not otherwise specified

Suspect diagnosis = diagnosis is not finalized, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease.

a Disease Laboratory of the California Fish & Game (CFG), Colorado State University (CO), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FL), Hubbs Sea World Research Institute (HSW), No diagnostics pursued (NON), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Other (OT), San Diego Zoo Diagnostic Laboratory (SDZ).

Written and compiled by: Anne Ballmann - Eastern US, LeAnn White – Central US, Krysten Schuler - Western US, Jennifer Buckner – Field Investigation Team Case Manager.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison , WI 53711

Eastern United States

Dr. Anne Ballmann
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2445
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: aballmann@usgs.gov

Central United States

Dr. LeAnn White
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2491
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: clwhite@usgs.gov

Western United States

Dr. Krysten Schuler
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2447
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: kschuler@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Islands

Dr. Thierry Work
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Ethanol toxicosis and subsequent trauma in cedar waxwings (Texas)
In March 2010, an estimated fifty cedar waxwings were found dead along a roadside in Harris County, Texas. Due to the proximity of the mortality event to the road, many of the birds had been struck by vehicles and were unsuitable for diagnostic testing. Three immature female cedar waxwings, however, were found to still be intact and were submitted to the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center for testing. Berries from decorative shrubs (the shrub species was not identified but were thought to be a species of Ilex) located near the mortality site were also submitted with the birds. All three birds had evidence of thoracic trauma and berries were observed in their upper digestive tract. Although the berries from the birds were unsuitable for testing, the berries collected from the nearby shrub were found to contain 800 ppm ethanol by wet weight. The level of ethanol found in the berries collected from the mortality event location was high enough to produce intoxication in these birds that could have resulted in compromised behavior and subsequent fatal trauma. Fermented fruit intoxication has been previously reported in several species of birds including robins and cedar waxwings. Fermentation toxicity is most common in late winter and early spring when thawing of overwintered berries allows for yeast fermentation of the sugars in the berries.

Bat White-nose syndrome update (Spring 2010)
White-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal infection of the skin in hibernating bats associated with unprecedented winter mortality in North American bat populations, continued to spread within the northeast and mid-Atlantic states this past winter season. Based on field signs and proximity to previously laboratory-confirmed locations, hibernacula surveys in Pennsylvania identified twelve newly presumptive positive sites, inhabited by multiple bat species, in seven counties. Two additional sites in Bucks Co. and Fayette Co. (southwestern Pennsylvania) were confirmed positive for WNS by histopathology. Only three sites reported bat mortality at survey time although at some locations only entrance surveys were possible. Of particular note was the confirmation of WNS in Fayette Co., which had no field indicators of the disease in the bat population in late March when samples were collected. Virginia also reported three additional presumptive positive WNS sites in three new western counties (Tazewell, Highland, Craig) this season; no mortality was observed despite fungus being observed on 10-80% of the bat populations (little brown and tri-colored bats) between late March to mid-April. Surveys of three previously confirmed positive Virginia sites (Spring 2009) recorded bat population declines and some mortality; however, there was also evidence of banded little brown bats surviving through two winter seasons and visibly unaffected Indiana bats hibernating in WNS positive caves. Western New York, eastern West Virginia, and northern New Hampshire all reported new cases of WNS in nine new counties. WNS or the detection of Geomyces destructans, the causative agent, has yet to be confirmed diagnostically in post-emergent bats beyond late May, regardless of suspicious wing lesions.

Summer/Fall 2010 NWHC Bat Submission Guidelines and WNS case definitions are available here.

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