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National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
October 2010 to December 2010

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AR Prairie County 12/09/10-12/09/10 American Wigeon, Northern Shoveler, Mallard 30 (e) Open NW
AZ Maricopa County 10/21/10-10/28/10 Mallard 12 Botulism type C NW
AZ Tucson 12/26/10-12/27/10 Brazilian Free-tailed Bat 73 (e) Trauma: gunshot NW, OT
AZ Buckeye 12/01/10-**** Eurasian Collared Dove 180 (e) Viral Infection: pigeon paramyxovirus 1 NW
AZ Phoenix 12/05/10-12/22/10 American Coot 75 (e) Trauma NW
CA Monterey Bay 11/01/10-12/01/10 Northern Fulmar 2,750 (e) Emaciation CFG
CA Salton Sea NWR 12/01/10-01/26/11 Northern Shoveler, Eared Grebe, Ruddy Duck, Unidentified Gull, Unidentified Grebe 1,312 Avian cholera NW
FL Southern Coastal Region 11/09/10-11/17/10 Turkey Vulture, Broad-winged Hawk 875 (e) Drowning NW, FL
FL Duval County 10/06/10-10/26/10 Mallard, Muscovy Duck 200 (e) Botulism type C NW, FL, SCW
FL Mirror Lake 10/14/10-11/08/10 Double-crested Cormorant, Anhinga 30 (e) Open: toxicosis suspect NW
ID Bear River Range 09/01/10-10/01/10 Tiger Salamander 1,500 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
KS Quivira NWR 11/13/10-12/04/10 Lesser Snow Goose, Greater White-fronted Goose 6 Avian cholera NW
LA Catahoula Lake 01/01/10-01/28/10 Canvasback, Northern Pintail, Mallard, Redhead Duck, Ruddy Duck 21 (e) Lead poisoning, Bacterial Infection: NOS NW
MA Wellfleet Bay, Cape Cod 10/10/10-12/17/10 Common Eider 750 (e) Viral Infection: NOS NVL, SCW
MI Fisherman's Island State Park 10/07/10-11/05/10 Red-necked Grebe, Double-crested Cormorant, Long-Tailed Duck, Common Loon, White-winged Scoter 21 Botulism type E MI
MI Wilderness State Park 10/25/10-10/25/10 White-winged Scoter 223 Botulism suspect NON
MN Bowstring Lake 10/05/10-11/24/10 American Coot, Lesser Scau, Long-Tailed Duck, Red-necked Grebe, Common Loon, Horned Grebep 1,200 (e) Parasitism: Cyathocotyle bushiensis, Sphaeridiotrema globulus NW
MS Coldwater River NWR 12/08/10-12/28/10 Ross' Goose, Snow Goose, American Coot 52 Avian cholera NW
NV Topaz Lake 10/18/10-**** Western Grebe 25 Toxicosis: blue-green algae suspect NW
NV Virginia Lake 10/06/10-10/12/10 Mallard, American Coot 23 Botulism type C NW
NV Washoe Lake 10/05/10-10/08/10 American White Pelican 23 Open NW
OH Groveport 11/22/10-11/29/10 American Robin 7 Trauma, Toxicosis, ethanol suspect NW
OK Hackberry Flat WMA 11/25/10-03/01/11 Ross' Goose 200 (e) Aflatoxicosis NW
OK Sequoyah NWR 12/12/10-12/12/10 Lesser Snow Goose 31 Aflatoxicosis suspect NW
UT Great Salt Lake 11/01/10-01/12/11 Eared Grebe 10,000 (e) Avian cholera NW
VA Hanover County 12/10/10-12/12/10 Common Grackle 350 (e) Undetermined NW
WA Snohomish County 11/27/10-11/29/10 Lesser Scaup 20 (e) Trauma NW
WA Westport 11/21/10-11/22/10 Brown Pelican 15 (e) Open NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
AZ Mesa 06/01/10-09/17/10 Mourning Dove, Eurasian Collared Dove, White-winged Dove 8 Viral Infection: Avian Paramyxovirus 1 (Pigeon Paramyxovirus) NW
CA Catalina Island 07/07/10-07/17/10 Bald Eagle 4 Undetermined, decomposed, Emaciation NW
MN Lake Johanna 07/27/10-08/01/10 Ring-billed Gull, American White Pelican, Double-crested Cormorant 100 (e) Aspergillosis NW
MN Lake Vermillion 07/27/10-10/01/10 Double-crested Cormorant 125 (e) Viral Infection: Avian Paramyxovirus 1 suspect NW
MN Upper Mississippi River NWFR 09/06/10-11/26/10 American Coot, Lesser Scaup, Ring-necked Duck, Bufflehead, Mallard 4,290 (e) Parasitism: Cyathocotyle bushiensis, Sphaeridiotrema globulus NW
MN Mountain Lake and Bingham Lake 05/15/10-05/17/10 Purple Martin 13 Emaciation NW
NV Esmeralda County 05/01/10-12/08/10 Pied-billed Grebe, Eared Grebe 45 Toxicosis: salt NW

****Cessation date not available.

(e) = estimate

Suspect diagnosis = diagnosis is not finalized, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease, NOS = Not otherwise specified

Disease Laboratory of the California Department of Fish & Game (CFG), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FL), Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment (MI), No diagnostics pursued (NON), National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVL), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Oregon State Diagnostic Laboratory (OR), Other (OT), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW).

Written and compiled by: Anne Ballmann, LeAnn White, and Jennifer Buckner.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison , WI 53711

Eastern United States

Dr. Anne Ballmann
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2445
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: aballmann@usgs.gov

Central United States

Dr. LeAnn White
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2491
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: clwhite@usgs.gov

Western United States

For assistance,
contact Drs. White and Ballmann

Hawaiian Islands

Dr. Thierry Work
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
uHonolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Great Salt Lake mortality in eared grebes (Utah)
An avian cholera outbreak was observed at the Great Salt Lake in November 2010. Surveys conducted by Utah Division of Wildlife Resources estimated 10,000 eared grebes died out of a population of 200,000. No species other than grebes appeared to have been affected. Mortality subsided in early January 2011 and ceased when water started freezing. Significant cholera outbreaks in this area have occurred previously: in 1994 where 15,000 grebes died; 44,000 in 1998; 30,000 in 2002; 30,000 in 2004; and 15,000 in 2007. More information on avian cholera and links to news stories are available at our Avian Cholera section.

Northern fulmar mortality from Monterey Bay to southern Washington (California, Washington)
In November 2010, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary�s BeachCOMBERS beach survey program documented increased numbers of Northern fulmars washing up dead on beaches in multiple counties (Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo), with mortality conservatively estimated at 2500 - 3000 birds. Reports of concurrent fulmar mortality came from Clatsop County, Oregon, and Long Beach, Washington. It is estimated that 98% were young of the year and in poor body condition suggesting starvation may have been the main cause of mortality. Many birds were sent to rehabilitation centers and responded positively to feeding and sodium supplementation. Northern fulmars are birds that regularly migrate through central California. Sometimes, large numbers of these migrant birds will strand on beaches in what is known as a "wreck". Wintertime wreck events in this area have occurred previously in 2003-2004, 1995, 1984, 1976, and 1907-1908.

Turkey vulture mortality off Southern Florida (Florida)
A large mortality event involving mostly juvenile turkey vultures was reported in early November 2010, extending from Biscayne Bay to Marathon, Florida. An estimated 875 turkey vultures died as a result of drowning after crashing into open water. Several broad-winged hawks were also involved. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission personnel, National Park Service, and other agencies were involved in the recovery of live birds, several of which responded well to supportive care in rehabilitation facilities and were later released. The majority of the vultures found dead were in good body condition and no underlying diseases were identified. The area in question was too far from radar to reliably detect "micro bursts" or other localized downdrafts; however, weather or possibly aircraft disturbance is suspected to be a contributing factor in the deaths. A smaller drowning event involving turkey vultures occurred off Sandy Key in February 2001.

Trematodiasis in Bowstring Lake (Minnesota)
For the third consecutive year, Bowstring Lake experienced avian mortalities in October and November due to intestinal trematode infections with Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Cyathocoytle bushinesis. Avian mortality due to intestinal trematodes was first detected at Bowstring Lake in 2008 and has been seen every year since. In this 2010 mortality event, an estimated 1200 birds died; primarily lesser scaup and American coots. Avian mortality due to intestinal trematodes has been observed at nearby Lake Winnibigoshish since 2005. Snail surveys conducted in the summer of 2008 at Lake Winnibigoshish found the invasive host snail, Bithynia tentaculata. Parasite infection rate for snails was between 0-93% with the highest prevalence occurring near shore. All 3 trematodes, S. globulus, C. bushinesis, and Legyonimus polyoon were detected and in some instances, a single snail was infected by more than 1 species of metacercariae, the intermediate life stage of the parasites.

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