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National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
April 2011 to June 2011

Location Dates A Species Mortality B Diagnosis C Labsite D
AK Barrow 05/10/11-05/31/11 King Eider, Common Eider *** Open NW
AK Eastern Aleutian Islands 04/03/11-04/15/11 Common Murre 200 Undetermined NW
AK Kodiak Island 05/16/11-**** American Crow, Black-billed Magpie, Glaucous-winged Gull, Unidentified Pigeon 9 Trauma NW
AZ Maricopa County 06/29/11-08/27/11 Mallard 12 Botulism Type C NW
CA Klamath NWR, Tule Lake NWR 04/10/11-04/15/11 California Gull, Ring-billed Gull 13 Avian cholera NW
CA Sonny Bono, Salton Sea NWR 05/15/11-07/21/11 Double-crested Cormorant 20 (e) Viral Infection: Avian Paramyxovirus 1 NW
CA Tule Lake NWR 05/12/11-05/13/11 Caspian Tern 12 (e) Trauma: impact NW
CT New London County 06/14/11-06/24/11 Wood Frog 200 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
DC Lafayette Park 06/13/11-06/15/11 Mallard 5 Septicemia, Parasitism: coccidiosis NW
FL Gold Head Branch State Park 04/07/11-04/25/11 Southern Leopard Frog, Bullfrog, Gopher Frog 150 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus FL, SDZ, UFL
IA Bremer County 06/01/11-07/20/11 Little Brown Bat, Northern Long-eared Bat 40 (e) Undetermined NW
KY Wayne County 05/18/11-05/18/11 Purple Martin 20 (e) Trauma SCW
LA Allen County 05/03/11-05/17/11 Blue Jay Bird, unidentified 7 (e) Undetermined SCW
MA Barnstable County, Suffolk County 05/11/11-06/20/11 Common Eider 16 (e) Emaciation, Hepatic necrosis NW
MD Chesapeake Bay 05/03/11-05/07/11 Double-crested Cormorant 9 Drowning suspect NW
MD North Branch Stream Valley Park 05/03/11-ongoing Eastern Box Turtle 9 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
MD Poplar Island 06/03/11-06/30/11 Double-crested Cormorant 107 Aspergillosis, undetermined NW
ME Oxford County 04/25/11-05/15/11 Little Brown Bat, Unidentified Bat 5 Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
MN Lake Winnibigoshish 04/20/11-05/13/11 Lesser Scaup 300 (e) Parasitism: Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Cyathocotyle bushiensis NW
MS Multiple Counties 04/15/11-05/24/11 Northern Cardinal, Brown-headed Cowbird 20 (e) Salmonellosis, salmonellosis suspect NW
ND Minot 05/14/11-05/16/11 Eared Grebe, Ruddy Duck 5 Open NW
ND Riverdale 06/13/11-06/21/11 Fox Squirrel, Little Brown Bat 7 (e) Predation, gunshot NW
OH Licking County 05/20/11-06/03/11 Canada Goose 6 (e) Trauma: gunshot NW
OH Athens County 06/15/11-06/29/11 European Starling, American Robin, Common Grackle 80 (e) Open NW
OH Paulding 06/20/11-**** Little Brown Bat 27 (e) Undetermined, emaciation NW
OH Union County 06/09/11-06/13/11 Little Brown Bat 8 Undetermined NW
OR Malheur NWR 05/23/11-06/01/11 Western Grebe, Clark's Grebe 60 (e) Open NW
TN Van Buren County 05/23/11-05/23/11 Purple Martin 5 Toxicosis: organophosphate, carbamate insecticide SCW
VA Newport News County 06/01/11-06/28/11 Evening Bat 10 (e) Undetermined, emaciation NW
VA Fredericksburg 04/01/11-07/01/11 House Finch 10 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis NW
WA Curlew Lake 05/15/11-05/15/11 Canada Goose 32 (e) Trauma, Open NW
WI Door County 06/10/11-ongoing Unidentified Gull, Double-crested Cormorant, Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull, American White Pelican 92 Botulism type E NW
WV Lewis County 6/27/11-6/27/11 Big-Brown Bat 7 Undetermined SCW
WV Moorefield 6/23/11-06/23/11 Common Grackle, European Starling 18 (e) Undetermined SCW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates A Species Mortality B Diagnosis C Labsite D
CAN Hants County 03/23/11-05/25/11 Little Brown Bat, Northern Long-eared Bat 7 Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome CCW
FL Crescent Lake 03/24/11-04/19/11 Mallard, Muscovy Duck 25 (e) Undetermined FL
LA Livingston County 03/16/11-03/23/11 Brown-headed Cowbird 5 (e) Avian salmonellosis SCW
MN Chippewa Lake 07/01/10-08/31/10 Mudpuppy Salamander 1,000 (e) Undetermined NON
MN Upper Mississippi River NWR 03/29/11-04/22/11 Lesser Scaup, Bufflehead, American Coot, Ring-necked Duck 5,850 (e) Parasitism: Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Cyathocotyle bushiensis NON
MT Roundup 02/15/11-**** Mule Deer *** Parasitism: Nematodiasis MT
ONT Nipissing District 03/31/11-05/15/11 Little Brown Bat 100 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome CCW
PA Tioga County 03/22/11-04/15/11 Eastern Small-footed Bat, Northern Long-eared Bat, Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored), Little Brown Bat 25 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
WI Upper Mississippi NWR 03/29/11-04/22/11 Lesser Scaup, American Coot 425 (e) Parasitism: Cyathocotyle bushiensis, Sphaeridiotrema globulus NW

a **** = cessation date not available.

b (e) = estimate, *** = mortality estimate not available.

c Suspect diagnosis = diagnosis is not finalized or completed tests were unable to confirm the diagnosis, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease.

d Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (CCW), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FL), Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Diagnostic Laboratory (MT), No diagnostics pursued (NON), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW), San Diego Zoo (SDZ), University of Florida (UFL).

Written and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center Field Investigations Team members: Anne Ballmann, LeAnn White, Barb Bodenstein, and Jennifer Buckner.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison , WI 53711

Eastern United States

Dr. Anne Ballmann
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2445
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: aballmann@usgs.gov

Central United States

Dr. LeAnn White
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2491
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: clwhite@usgs.gov

Western United States

Barb Bodenstein
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2447
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: bbodenstein@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Islands

Dr. Thierry Work
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

For single animal mortality, nationwide, please contact: Jennifer Buckner, USGS National Wildlife Health Center Biologist by phone: (608) 270-2443, fax: (608)-270-2415, or email: jBuckner@usgs.gov

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Trematodiasis in lesser scaup (Minnesota)
In April 2011, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) began surveying Lake Winnibigoshish for avian mortalities. Biologists observed lesser scaup that were unable to fly and had difficulty diving. Approximately 300 lesser scaup were found dead between April and May on the lake and several were submitted to the US Geological Survey�s National Wildlife Health Center where trematodiasis, specifically Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Cyathocotyle bushiensis, was confirmed. This lake has a history of almost annual parasitism mortalities associated with exotic trematodes (S. globulus, C. bushiensis, Leyogonimus polyoon) since 2007.

The lesions associated with these gastrointestinal parasites include mild to severe ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis and caseous plaques and mortality is thought to be associated with blood loss and shock. Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and American coot (Fulica americana) have consistently been the two most affected species by this disease in the midwestern United States. Increased susceptibility of these species may be a result of their increased rate of exposure to the infective stage due to foraging preferences; these include feeding on mollusks and preferences for deep, open water habitats with emergent vegetation. Another factor in increased susceptibility may be due to dense populations of these species that use infected areas during spring and fall migrations.

Field investigation at Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Site (Maryland)
Wildlife disease specialists and biologists from the US Geological Survey�s National Wildlife Health Center, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service teamed up to investigate double-crested cormorant mortality at a rookery site on Poplar Island in Talbot County, Maryland, in June 2011. During the summer 2010, virulent Newcastle disease (vND) and concurrent salmonellosis were detected in young of the year cormorants at this rookery resulting in the death of approximately 84 birds. While juvenile cormorant mortality had not yet exceeded that observed during the previous summer, baseline mortality for this population of 816 active nests was uncertain. Given the high density of domestic poultry in Maryland, resource managers wished to investigate the possibility of vND recurrence in this population. Fresh dead carcasses, as well as several 3-6 week old birds exhibiting lethargy, incoordination, and wing dragging were collected for diagnostic evaluation. In addition, serum and paired oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected non-lethally from a subset of asymptomatic 4-6 week old juveniles for future analysis. No evidence of vND or closely related avian paramyxovirus-1 was detected in the affected birds. Aspergillosis was diagnosed in the cormorants found dead while no infectious diseases were identified among the clinically affected juveniles. Collaborative studies with USDA Wildlife Services and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources have been initiated this summer (2011) to better understand vND disease ecology in double-crested cormorant populations.

Ranavirus mortality among amphibians and chelonians in the Eastern U.S. (Connecticut, Maryland, Florida)
Ranavirus infections were responsible for mortality events involving several species of frogs and Eastern box turtles extending throughout the Atlantic states between April and June 2011. Ranavirus was previously confirmed in wood frogs and spotted salamanders in Connecticut during 2009, and various frog species in Florida during 2002 and 2006. Box turtle mortality due to ranavirus infection has occurred annually since 2008 in Montgomery County, Maryland, although the disease was first reported in amphibians elsewhere in the state in 2005. Larval and metamorph (tadpoles) stages of amphibians are most susceptible to infection by ranavirus. Ranavirus mortality often involves large numbers of individuals, which are found swimming erratically or floating upside-down in the water, and have reddened ventrums, hemorrhages, and skin ulceration. Clinical signs in box turtles include weakness, lethargy, oral plaques, swollen eyes, thick discharge from the mouth and/or nares, and difficulty breathing. It is thought that infected amphibians may serve as a potential reservoir for sympatric chelonians. Ranavirus infections, mostly involving amphibians, have been confirmed in 28 states nationwide since 1997. Maine, Rhode Island, Maryland, Idaho, and Wyoming account for over 40% of the reported ranavirus mortality events in the NWHC wildlife disease database.

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