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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
January 2012 to March 2012

Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Laboratory
AK Afognak Island, Seal Bay 01/15/12-03/10/12 Common Murre, Red-necked Grebe 300 (e) Emaciation NW
AK Sitka/Skagway 01/08/12-01/16/12 Common Murre 24 (e) Emaciation: starvation suspect NW
AL Mobile 11/15/11-**** Raccoon 450 (e) Canine distemper COR
AS Nuuuli 02/12/12-02/13/12 Jungle Myna 20 (e) Trauma suspect NW
AZ Pima County 01/31/12-02/03/12 Yellow-headed Blackbird 50 (e) Aspergillosis AZV, NW
CA Riverside County 02/22/12-02/22/12 Tricolored Blackbird, European Starling 18 Toxicosis: strychnine CAF, CFG
CA Amador City 02/01/12-02/20/12 Band-tailed Pigeon 10 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Monterey County 01/11/12-03/18/12 Band-tailed Pigeon 400 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Coarsegold, Deadwood 01/10/12-03/09/12 Band-tailed Pigeon 400 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CAF, CFG
CA Lake of the Pines 02/04/12-02/10/12 Band-tailed Pigeon 30 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Lower Klamath NWR 02/14/12-04/23/12 Lesser Snow Goose, Greater White-fronted Goose, Ross' Goose, Tundra Swan, Unidentified Duck 3,908 Avian cholera NW
CA Butte County 01/26/12-02/03/12 Wood Duck 75 (e) Avian cholera CAF, CFG
CA Sacramento NWR Complex 01/20/12-04/01/12 Pied-billed Grebe, White-faced Ibis, American Coot, Lesser Snow Goose, Ruddy Duck 800 (e) Avian cholera NW
CA Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 01/02/12-02/02/12 Western Grebe 10 (e) Toxicosis suspect NW
CA Stone Lake NWR 03/09/12-03/29/12 American Coot, Greater White-fronted Goose 100 Avian cholera NW
CA Upper Butte Basin Wildlife Area 03/20/12-03/27/12 American Coot 200 (e) Avian cholera CAF, CFG
CA Woodbridge Ecological Reserve 01/05/12-03/12/12 American Coot, Unidentified Duck or Goose, Black-necked Stilt, Greater White-fronted Goose, Common Snipe 1,300 (e) Avian cholera CAF, CFG
CA Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area 01/23/12-03/30/12 Northern Shoveler, Unidentified Duck or Goose, Greater Snow Goose, Pied-billed Grebe, Ruddy Duck 1,350 (e) Avian cholera suspect NON
GA Muscogee County 02/14/12-02/14/12 Cedar Waxwing 17 Trauma SCW
GA Stephens County 03/01/12-03/01/12 Cedar Waxwing 11 Trauma SCW
HI Hanalei NWR 12/05/11-04/18/12 Hawaiian Coot, Hawaiian Duck, Blue-winged Teal, Northern Pintail 248 Botulism Type C OT
IA Riverton Wildlife Management Area 03/08/12-03/16/12 Lesser Snow Goose, Ross' Goose 150 (e) Avian cholera NW
KS Barber County 01/05/12-01/05/12 Cave Myotis Bat 6 Trauma SCW
LA Cameron County 03/01/12-**** Red-winged Blackbird, Brown-headed Cowbird 14 Salmonellosis SCW
MA Suffolk County 02/03/12-02/28/12 American Coot, Ruddy Duck, Unidentified Gull 18 (e) Undetermined NW
MA Wellfleet Harbor 01/12/12-04/03/12 Common Dolphin 138 Open NVL, NW, OT
MD Prince Georges County 02/15/12-02/15/12 European Starling 100 (e) Trauma: impact MDA, NW
MD Little Bennett Regional Park 03/17/12-03/18/12 Eastern Red-spotted Newt 16 Open NW
MD Rock Hall 01/11/12-01/12/12 Green-winged Teal 25 (e) Undetermined NW
ME Acadia National Park 12/12/11-06/02/12 Little Brown Bat 15 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose Syndrome NW
MN Upper Mississippi NWR 03/12/12-04/23/12 American Coot, Northern Shoveler, Lesser Scaup 4,300 (e) Parasitism: Sphaeridiotrema globulus NW
MO Clarence Cannon NWR 02/01/12-02/08/12 Lesser Snow Goose, Ross' Goose 9 Avian cholera NW
MO Squaw Creek NWR 02/13/12-03/09/12 Lesser Snow Goose 750 (e) Avian cholera NW
MT Medicine Lake 12/01/11-03/15/12 Snowy Owl, Great Horned Owl, Golden Eagle 25 (e) Emaciation, Lead Poisoning NW
NE Phelps County 02/29/12-02/29/12 Greater Snow Goose, Ross' Goose 20 Trauma: storm NON
NE Multiple Counties (Clay, Phelps, Kearney) 02/22/12-03/20/12 Lesser Snow Goose, Snow Goose, Ross' Goose, Northern Pintail, Mallard 1,294 Avian cholera NW
NV Ruby Lake NWR 01/19/12-01/23/12 American Coot 65 (e) Drowning NW
PA Cambria County 01/01/12-03/15/12 Little Brown Bat, Eastern Pipistrelle (AKA Tri-colored) 200 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
PA Perkiomenville 02/25/12-03/12/12 Rock Dove 50 (e) Viral Infection: Avian Paramyxovirus 1 suspect NW
SC Berkeley County 03/07/12-03/28/12 White-throated Sparrow, Red-bellied Woodpecker, House Finch, Common Grackle, Cardinal 7 Salmonellosis SCW
SD Rapid City 02/02/12-02/03/12 Rock Dove 100 (e) Undetermined NW
TN Nolichucky River 03/01/12-03/01/12 Unidentified Bat 21 Unsuitable NON
UT Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge 03/15/12-04/20/12 Common Goldeneye, American Wigeon, Northern Shoveler 25 (e) Undetermined NW
WA Bainbridge Island 01/09/12-01/31/12 Pine Siskin 20 (e) Salmonellosis NW
WA Skagit County 12/31/11-02/29/12 Trumpeter Swan 17 Open NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Laboratory
CA San Luis and Merced NWR Complexes 12/15/11-02/10/2012 American Coot,Lesser Snow Goose 450 (e) Avian cholera CAF
CA Ventura Harbor 10/01/11-03/30/12 Western Grebe, Northern Fulmar, Brandt's Cormorant, Common Murre, California Sea Lion 350 (e) Emaciation, neurologic lesion (avian) NW
CA Hayward Regional Shoreline 09/16/11-06/30/12 Green-winged Teal, American Wigeon, Northern Pintail, Gadwall, Mallard 2,539 Botulism type C, Avian Cholera NW, CAF
MN Burnsville 08/15/1112/4/11 Green Frog, Northern Leopard Frog, American Toad 19 Viral Infection: Ranavirus, Fungal Infection: chytrid NW
OR Washington County 12/20/11-12/30/11 Bullfrog 20 (e) Fungal Infection: chytrid suspect NW

**** = cessation date not available.

(e) = estimate, *** = mortality estimate not available.

Suspect = diagnosis is not finalized or completed tests were unable to confirm the diagnosis, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease; Open = diagnosis is not finalized and tests are on-going; Undetermined = testing is complete or was not pursued and no cause of death was evident; NOS = not otherwise specified.

Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (AZV), California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory Network (CAF), California Fish & Game Disease Laboratory (CFG), Cornell University (COR), Maryland Department of Agriculture (MDA), No diagnostics pursued (NON), USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Other (OT), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW).

Written and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center Field Investigations Team members: Anne Ballmann, LeAnn White, Barb Bodenstein, and Jennifer (Buckner) Buckner.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison , WI 53711

Eastern United States

Dr. Anne Ballmann
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2445
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: aballmann@usgs.gov

Central United States

Dr. LeAnn White
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2491
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: clwhite@usgs.gov

Western United States

Barb Bodenstein
Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2447
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: bbodenstein@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Islands

Dr. Thierry Work
Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Avian Cholera in California
Pasteurella multocida (avian cholera) epizootics were reported in various locations within nine California counties (Alameda, Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Siskiyou, Sutter and Yolo) during the first quarter of 2012 (January � March). Cases were investigated and reported by the California Department of Fish and Game in partnership with USGS National Wildlife Health Center. The smallest event involved an estimated 75 dead wood ducks on a pond in Butte County. State waterfowl areas such as Woodbridge Ecological Reserve, Upper Butte Basin, North Grasslands, and Yolo Bypass Wildlife Areas estimated losses ranging from 200 to 1,500 birds including ducks, geese, and shorebirds. Sutter, Stone Lake and Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complexes, which serve as wintering areas for an estimated 2 million migratory birds, estimated final mortalities ranging from 100 to over 10,000 waterfowl, shorebirds and gulls, respectively. Refuge staff and volunteers at Tule Lake/Lower Klamath Lake NWR (Klamath Basin NWR Complex) retrieved 3,908 dead birds between mid-February and late April. The staff estimates this is approximately one-third of the birds that died during the event. The species most affected were the snow goose, American coot, American wigeon, white-fronted goose and northern pintail. This was the largest outbreak of avian cholera the Klamath Basin NWR staff has seen since 2008 when an estimated 10,000 birds died due to avian cholera.

Avian Cholera in the Midwest United States
Avian cholera was the second leading cause of avian mortality events (after trematodiasis), reported to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, in the Central and Mississippi flyways during the first quarter of 2012. Greater and lesser snow geese and Ross�s geese were the primary species involved in all four mortality events in the Midwest. The first 2012 cholera event in the Midwest occurred in Pike County, Missouri at the beginning of February and involved less than ten geese. The other three events in the Midwest were reported shortly thereafter, first in northwestern Missouri (Holt County) followed by Iowa and Nebraska. The event in Iowa involved an estimated 150 geese in Fremont County on a wildlife management area. The last avian cholera event on that area was reported in 2003. The largest event in the Midwest in 2012 occurred in Nebraska across multiple Waterfowl Production Areas in Clay, Phelps, and Kearney Counties and involved almost 1,300 birds, primarily snow geese and Ross�s geese, as well as a few other species of waterfowl - such as Northern pintails and mallards. The avian cholera mortality in 2012 in Nebraska was the highest for the state since 1999 when an estimated 1,400 died from this disease.

North America White-nose syndrome Update for Winter 2011/2012
Geomyces destructans, the fungus that often causes fatal skin infections of hibernating bats in eastern and central North America, continued to spread this past winter season. Most notably, characteristic skin lesions of white-nose syndrome (WNS) were confirmed on little brown bats at a hibernaculum west of the Mississippi River for the first time in Lincoln County, Missouri and the southern Appalachians of northern Alabama (Jackson County). While no mortality was detected at either location and mortality remains low along the western disease front, an estimated 5.5 million bats are believed to have died from WNS since it was first recognized five years ago near Albany, New York. Winter bat populations have been reduced more than 80% in the northeast and mid-Atlantic United States although there are some early indications that bat populations may have stabilized at some of the original affected sites in New York. White-nose syndrome was also confirmed at the only known bat hibernaculum in Delaware for the first time this past winter although G. destructans had been previously detected on bats returning early to known maternity roosts from this hibernaculum. WNS has now been confirmed in 18 states and 4 Canadian provinces, and it continues to expand into new counties and districts within the affected area. Iowa recently announced the detection of low levels of G. destructans DNA on a single big brown bat showing no clinical signs in Jackson County. The viability of the fungus at the Iowa site is still unknown. In addition to range expansion of WNS, the federally-listed endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens) was also added to the list of North American hibernating bats confirmed with the disease which includes little brown bats (M. lucifugus), Northern long-eared bats (M. septentrionalis), Eastern small-footed bats (M. leibeii), endangered Indiana bats (M. sodalis), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

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