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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
January 2014 to March 2014

Location Dates A Species Mortality B Diagnosis C Laboratory D
AR Hot Springs 03/06/14-03/06/14 Cedar Waxwing 10 (e) Trauma SCW
AR Little Rock 02/19/14-03/15/14 Brazilian Free-tailed Bat 110 (e) Undetermined NW
AR Marion County 01/12/14-04/15/14 Northern Long-Eared Bat 5 Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
AZ Mohave County 01/25/14-01/28/14 Eurasian Collared Dove 7 (e) Viral Infection: Avian Paramyxovirus 1 NW
AZ Scottsdale 01/15/14-01/20/14 Unidentified Pigeon, Unidentified Dove, Great-tailed Grackle, Mourning Dove, Inca Dove 18 (e) Toxicosis: strychnine NW
CA Clear Lake 01/15/14-02/20/14 Ruddy Duck, American Coot 60 (e) Avian cholera suspect NON
CA Forestville 01/03/14-02/14/14 Varied Thrush 9 Aspergillosis CAF
CA Mendota Wildlife Area 02/03/14-03/10/14 Unidentified Gull 15 (e) Undetermined CAF
CA Multiple counties 02/09/14-ongoing Mourning Dove 108 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis suspect NON
CA Pajaro River 03/01/14-03/03/14 American Coot 138 Open NW
CA Palomar Mountains 01/09/14-02/12/14 Band-tailed Pigeon 200 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Pocket Canal 03/29/14-05/12/14 Mallard 40 (e) Avian cholera CAF
CA Point Reyes National Seashore 03/21/14-04/15/14 Rough-skinned Newt 89 Viral Infection: Ranavirus suspect NW
CA South Lake Tahoe 01/27/14-01/28/14 White-crowned Sparrow, Golden-crowned Sparrow 32 Undetermined CAF
CA South Lake Tahoe 01/28/14-01/28/14 Brewer's Blackbird 12 (e) Toxicosis: strychnine CAF
CA Tule Lake NWR 02/11/14-04/15/14 Lesser Snow Goose, American Wigeon, Ross' Goose, Northern Pintail, Greater White-fronted Goose 3500 (e) Avian cholera NW
CA Wiser WMA; Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 02/25/14-03/13/14 Double-crested Cormorant 50 (e) Avian cholera NW
GA Glynn County 01/23/14-01/23/14 Eastern Brown Pelican 7 Emaciation: starvation suspect SCW
GA Rabun County 03/04/14-04/15/14 Eastern Pipistrelle (Tri-colored) Bat 40 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome SCW
GA Stephens County 02/03/14-02/03/14 American Crow, Canada Goose, Field Sparrow, Unidentified Crow, Turkey (Wild) 18 Toxicosis: Famphur SCW
HI Hawaiian Islands 02/01/14-ongoing Collector Urchin *** Open NW
IA Browns Lake; Snyder Bend 03/01/14-03/18/14 Mallard, Unidentified Avian, Canada Goose, American Coot, Green-winged Teal 130 (e) Avian cholera NW
IA Riverton WMA 03/10/14-03/25/14 Lesser Snow Goose 75 (e) Avian cholera NW
ID Fort Boise WMA 02/24/14-04/09/14 Lesser Snow Goose, Greater Snow Goose, Ring-necked Duck, Unidentified Scaup, Greater White-fronted Goose 400 (e) Avian cholera suspect ID
KS Lovewell Reservoir 02/15/14-03/01/14 Mallard 150 (e) Avian cholera SCW
KS Montgomery County 01/01/14-01/01/14 Red-winged Blackbird 12 (e) Trauma NW
LA Avoyelles Parish 01/09/14-01/09/14 Wood Duck, Northern Pintail 20 (e) Undetermined SCW
LA Jefferson Davis Parish 01/03/14-01/03/14 Brown-headed Cowbird 250 (e) Undetermined SCW
LA Near Bayou Black 02/15/14-02/20/14 American Coot 200 (e) Avian cholera NW
MD/VA Cobb Island, MD; Trent Hall Creek, MD; Popes Creek, VA 02/04/14-02/12/14 Ruddy Duck, Double-crested Cormorant 125 (e) Emaciation MDA, NW
MD Kent Narrows Bridge 02/09/14-02/09/14 Unidentified Blackbird 100 (e) Trauma suspect NON
MD Oxford Marina 02/04/14-02/05/14 Ruddy Duck, Redhead Duck, Lesser Scaup, Canvasback 60 (e) Emaciation MDA, NW
MI Alcona County 01/02/14-01/02/14 Mallard 18 Aspergillosis MI
MI Detroit and Huron Rivers, Gibraltar 02/21/14-03/19/14 Mute Swan, Canvasback, Unidentified Scaup, Tundra Swan, Common Merganser 415 (e) Starvation MI
MI Keweenaw County **** -04/28/14 Little Brown Bat 50 (e) Fungal infection: white-nose syndrome MI
MI Lake Macatawa 03/29/14-04/15/14 Common Merganser, Common Goldeneye, Double-crested Cormorant 21 (e) Starvation suspect NON
MI Ludington 03/10/14-04/01/14 Common Goldeneye, Long-Tailed Duck, White-winged Scoter, Red-breasted Merganser 300 (e) Starvation MI
MI Muskegon 02/22/14-04/15/14 Greater Scaup 15 (e) Starvation MI
MI Muskegon 03/07/14-04/15/14 Greater Scaup, White-winged Scoter 20 (e) Starvation MI
MI Muskegon Lake Channel 03/15/14-04/15/14 Red-breasted Merganser, Unidentified Scaup, White-winged Scoter, Greater Scaup 160 (e) Starvation suspect NON
MI Pigeon Lake 02/08/14-04/15/14 White-winged Scoter, Red-breasted Merganser, Long-Tailed Duck, Mute Swan, Horned Grebe 36 (e) Starvation MI
MI Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore 01/15/14-04/15/14 Unidentified Duck, White-winged Scoter, Long-Tailed Duck, Double-crested Cormorant, Unidentified Passerine 96 Starvation suspect NON
MI Traverse City 02/01/14-04/15/14 Unidentified Waterfowl, Greater Scaup, Red-breasted Merganser, Mute Swan, White-winged Scoter 200 (e) Starvation MI
MO Columbia 03/09/14-03/13/14 Common Grackle 5 Trauma SCW
MO Iron County 02/26/14-04/15/14 Northern Long-Eared Bat 9 (e) Fungal Infection: white-nose syndrome NW
MS Panola County 01/24/14-01/26/14 Common Grackle, Brown-headed Cowbird 1000 (e) Toxicosis suspect NW
MT Freezeout Lake 01/28/14-01/29/14 Mallard 16 Trauma NW
NE Johnson & Funk WPAs 03/07/14-04/05/14 Snow Goose, Canada Goose, Mallard, Northern Pintail, American Wigeon 563 Avian cholera NW
NE Platte River 01/13/14-01/30/14 Mallard 105 (e) Avian cholera NW
NJ Bridgeton 01/15/14-02/24/14 Mourning Dove, Northern Mockingbird, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Unidentified Passerine 25 (e) Toxicosis: carbon monoxide suspect NW
NY Dunkirk 02/01/14-04/15/14 Red-breasted Merganser, American Coot, Greater Scaup, Mallard 1500 (e) Emaciation: starvation suspect NW, NY
NY Irondequoit 01/15/14-04/15/14 Red-breasted Merganser *** Emaciation: starvation suspect NY
OH Cold Creek 02/19/14-02/21/14 Red-breasted Merganser, Canvasback, Canada Goose, Mute Swan, American Black Duck 20 Emaciation: starvation suspect NW
OR Staats Lake 03/02/14-04/30/14 Cackling Goose, Herring Gull, Mew Gull 50 (e) Aspergillosis OR
OR Summer Lake Wildlife Area 02/25/14-03/07/14 Lesser Snow Goose 100 (e) Avian cholera OR
OR Umatilla NWR; Columbia River 01/01/14-01/02/14 American Crow 100 (e) Undetermined NW
PA Conneaut Lake 03/03/14-03/03/14 American Coot, Redhead Duck 15 (e) Emaciation: starvation suspect NW
PA New Danville 03/19/14-03/19/14 Common Grackle 15 (e) Toxicosis: chlorpyrifos NW
SD Huron 03/02/14-03/04/14 American Robin 24 (e) Emaciation: starvation NW
TX Milano 03/02/14-03/11/14 Brazilian Free-tailed Bat 123 (e) Emaciation: starvation suspect NW
TX Vidor 03/20/14-04/08/14 Northern Cardinal 35 (e) Salmonellosis NW
VA Surry County 01/15/14-02/25/14 Brown Pelican 50 (e) Undetermined NW
WA Klickitat County 02/26/14-04/13/14 Red Crossbill, Varied Thrush 8 Trauma: impact NW
WI Jones Island 02/15/14-04/02/14 Unidentified Scaup, Common Merganser, Ring-necked Duck, Common Loon, Canada Goose 200 (e) Emaciation: starvation WI
WI Kenosha and Pleasant Prairie 03/05/14-04/02/14 Unidentified Duck 25 (e) Starvation suspect NON
WI Manitowoc 03/05/14-04/02/14 Unidentified Duck 25 (e) Starvation suspect NON
WI Milwaukee 03/05/14-04/02/14 Unidentified Merganser, Common Goldeneye, Unidentified Scaup, Ring-necked Duck 150 (e) Starvation suspect NON
WI Oak Creek 03/08/14-03/11/14 Red-breasted Merganser, Unidentified Goldeneye, Lesser Scaup 35 (e) Emaciation: starvation NW
WI Washington Island area 03/05/14-04/02/14 Common Goldeneye, Unidentified Merganser, Unidentified Scaup, White-winged Scoter 200 (e) Starvation suspect NON
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates A Species Mortality B Diagnosis C Laboratory D
CA Central Valley 04/10/13-07/01/13 Mourning Dove 100 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Colusa NWR 10/15/13-02/15/14 American Coot, White-fronted Greater Goose 100 (e) Undetermined NW
CA Hayward Marsh 12/12/13-05/07/14 Ruddy Duck, Northern Shoveler, Unidentified Gull, American Wigeon, American Coot 892 Avian cholera CAF
CA Merced NWR 12/12/13-04/30/14 Ross' Goose, American Coot 200 (e) Avian cholera NW
CA Sacramento NWR 12/15/13-02/15/14 American Coot, Lesser Snow Goose, Greater White-fronted Goose, Northern Pintail 100 (e) Avian cholera NW
CA San Diego Bay NWR 05/15/13-05/30/13 Gull-billed Tern 115 Parasitism: acanthocephaliasis NW, SWD
CA San Joaquin River NWR 12/31/13-04/30/14 Ross' Goose, American Coot 600 (e) Avian cholera NW
CA Sutter NWR 12/15/13-02/15/14 American Coot, Lesser Snow Goose, Aleutian Canada Goose 200 (e) Undetermined NW
KS Cheyenne Bottoms 12/05/13-12/25/13 Yellow-headed Blackbird, Common Grackle, Red-winged Blackbird, European Starling, Brown-headed Cowbird 500 (e) Trauma suspect SCW
KS Linn County 10/10/13-02/10/14 Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Cooper's Hawk, Blue Grosbeak, Common Yellowthroat 250 (e) Trauma SCW
LA Crowley 02/20/13-02/22/13 Brown-headed Cowbird 100 (e) Undetermined NW
MD Cukla Pond 06/26/13-08/01/13 Wood Frog 1000 (e) Undetermined NW
NC Alligator River NWR 04/22/13-04/26/13 Red Wolf 5 Septicemia NW
ND Oakes 09/06/13-09/06/13 Rose-breasted Grosbeak 20 (e) Undetermined NW
NE Mormon Island SRA 04/01/13-04/15/13 Unidentified Sandhill Crane 15 (e) Bacterial infection suspect NW
NJ Carneys Point 12/31/13-12/31/13 Brown-headed Cowbird, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle 100 (e) Toxicosis: diazinon SCW
OH Ashland County 07/15/13-08/15/13 Big Brown Bat 5 Trauma suspect NW
OH Freemont Reservoir 12/03/13-12/13/13 Ring-billed Gull 55 Anemia NW
ONT Mohawk Island NWA, Lake Erie 07/12/13-07/12/13 Caspian Tern 9 Botulism type E CCW
ONT Wasaga Beach 07/20/13-10/24/13 Long-Tailed Duck, Unidentified Duck or Goose, Unidentified Avian, White-winged Scoter, Common Goldeneye 1288 Botulism suspect CCW
UT Multiple counties 11/28/13-03/31/14 Bald Eagle 86 Viral Infection: West Nile NW, SCW, UTV
WA Port of Vancouver 09/30/13-03/18/14 Gadwall, Unidentified Scaup, American Coot, American Wigeon, Mallard 200 (e) Botulism type C NW
WI Langlade 09/01/13-12/24/13 Red-tailed Hawk, Harris' Hawk 12 Gout NW, WVL

A **** = cessation date not available.

B (e) = estimate, *** = mortality estimate not available.

C Suspect = diagnosis is not finalized or completed tests were unable to confirm the diagnosis, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease; Open = diagnosis is not finalized and tests are on-going; Undetermined = testing is complete or was not pursued and no cause of death was evident.

D California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory Network (CAF), Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CCW), Disease Laboratory of the California Fish & Game (Wildlife Investigations Laboratory) (CFG), Idaho Wildlife Health Laboratory, Boise (ID), Maryland Department of Agriculture (MDA), Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MI), National Wildlife Health Center (NW), No diagnostics pursued (NON), New York State, Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife & Marine Resources (NY), Oregon State Diagnostic Laboratory (OR), Other (OT), Sea World of San Diego (SWD), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW), Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UTV), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Health Laboratory (WI), Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVL).

Written and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center Epidemiology Team members: Anne Ballmann, LeAnn White, Barb Bodenstein, Thierry Work, and Jennifer Chipault.

To report mortality or receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison , WI 53711, NWHC-epi@usgs.gov

Dr. Anne Ballmann
NWHC Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2445
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: aballmann@usgs.gov
Dr. LeAnn White
NWHC Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2491
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: clwhite@usgs.gov
Barb Bodenstein
NWHC Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2447
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: bbodenstein@usgs.gov
Bob Dusek
NWHC Wildlife Disease Specialist
Phone: (608) 270-2403
Fax: (608) 270-2415
Email: rdusek@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Islands

Dr. Thierry Work
NWHC Wildlife Disease Ecologist
P.O. Box 50167
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Rm 8-132
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: (808) 792-9520
FAX: (808) 792-9596
Email: Thierry_work@usgs.gov

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Great Lakes winter waterfowl mortality
Avian mortality associated with emaciation and starvation accounted for over 30% (3,649/11,719) of total estimated mortality reported to the National Wildlife Health Center during the first quarter of 2014. Reports of emaciated birds ranged from brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) in Georgia in January to American robins (Turdus migratorius) in South Dakota in March, but the majority of investigations involved waterfowl in the Great Lakes states. Moribund and dead birds were found around the shores of Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Ontario starting in early January, with many carcasses uncovered during the spring thaw. Species most affected in the Great Lakes region were the diving ducks including mergansers (Mergus sp), scaup (Aythya sp), white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca), and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). Waterfowl were also affected on smaller bodies of water inland from the Great Lakes (e.g., Pigeon Lake, Michigan and Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania). Throughout the winter, Midwest news articles highlighted the appearance of stranded birds such as grebes (Podiceps sp) and mergansers in driveways and snow drifts, as well as the associated influx of submissions of weak birds to area rehabilitation centers. Stranding, starvation, and emaciation in dabbling and diving waterfowl were likely caused by the severe winter conditions in 2013/2014 resulting in increased ice cover on lakes and inaccessible food sources. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, ice covered more than 90% of the Great Lakes at peak in 2014, compared to an average annual maximum of 51.4% since 1973. Waterfowl carcasses from the Great Lakes region evaluated at various diagnostic laboratories (National Wildlife Health Center, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and Michigan and Wisconsin Departments of Natural Resources) were negative for a variety of other possible etiologies, including avian influenza, botulism, lead toxicosis, West Nile virus, avian cholera, and parasitic infections. Aspergillosis was detected in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) near Lake Huron (Alcona County, Michigan). Some specimens had elevated levels of selenium but this was not considered to be a cause of death. Also detected in carcasses associated with groups of emaciated waterfowl were signs of trauma and drowning, likely due to harsh environmental conditions and/or weakened condition of the birds. Given the large avian population at risk and the broad geographical scale, the total waterfowl mortality associated with harsh winter 2013/2014 conditions in the Great Lakes region was likely far greater than that reported. Please submit relevant reports to Jenny Chipault, USGS National Wildlife Health Center, 608-270-2473, jchipault@usgs.gov

Hawaiian Island sea urchin mortality
The National Wildlife Health Center-Honolulu Field Station is collaborating with University of Hawaii, State of Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, and The Nature Conservancy to investigate an unusual mortality of collector urchins (Tripneustes gratilla) that has been ongoing since February 2014. This issue is important because urchins play a critical role as grazers in tropical coral reefs by helping prevent overgrowth of algae on reefs. Awareness of this issue was made apparent in the early 1980s in the Caribbean when more than 90% of its urchin population declined over a 3.5 million square kilometer area within approximately a 12 month period, resulting in an 80% decline of coral cover with attendant loss of biodiversity. Mortalities of collector urchins have been documented on most of the main Hawaiian Islands, and efforts are ongoing to identify the potential cause. Field investigations on Oahu have revealed at least two sites with mortalities, and a recent investigation on Maui confirmed presence of mortality on west Maui. Occasional reports have come from Hawaii and Kauai. A recent survey of urchins in south and southwest Maui revealed most to be healthy and the disease limited to a single area. The main species affected is collector urchins, but occasional reports of other species of urchins dying in north Kauai have been received; however, no specimens were available for laboratory evaluation. Contact: Dr. Thierry Work, USGS National Wildlife Heath Center – Honolulu Field Station, 808-792-9520, thierry_work@usgs.gov

White-nose syndrome Winter 2013/2014 summary
In the United States, three new states (Arkansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin) reported their first confirmed cases of white-nose syndrome (WNS) among clinically affected cave-hibernating bats during the 2013/2014 winter season, increasing the total number of affected states to 25 and 5 Canadian provinces. In addition, continued expansion of the disease was reported in Midwestern and Southeastern states and in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. Evidence of the disease now extends as far west as Jackson County, Missouri (approximate longitude -94.5°) on the Missouri/Kansas border and as far south as Paulding County, Georgia (approximate latitude 33.9°). Mortality among hibernating bats was observed in several sites within the newly WNS-confirmed states (Arkansas, Michigan) as well as in Georgia, which was first confirmed positive for WNS last winter (2012/2013). Non-lethal swab surveillance for the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), expanded into the Great Plains and Southern states and, using this methodology, Pd was detected in several central Mississippi counties for the first time since the emergence of WNS in North America in 2007. Also of note, Woodward County, Oklahoma formerly classified as “WNS suspect” since spring 2010 was removed from the WNS distribution map based on subsequent testing with improved assays and surveillance. Several winter mortality events involving Brazilian free-tailed bats (Texas, Arkansas) were also investigated during this period. In both instances, submitted bats were found to be emaciated. All those tested for rabies were negative and no evidence of WNS or Pd exposure was detected. An underlying cause for the emaciation was not identified; starvation is suspected in the Texas mortality event. Partners are reminded that the NWHC provides diagnostic and epidemiological assistance to investigate unusual bat mortality events throughout the year. State/federal/tribal agencies wishing to participate in the expanded national Pd surveillance strategy should contact Dr. Anne Ballmann (608-270-2445, aballmann@usgs.gov) to discuss options for their region.

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