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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 2014 to September 2014

Location Dates Species Mortality A Diagnosis B Laboratory C
AK Southeast Bering Sea, Unidentified Murre 08/19/14-08/31/14 Common Murre 51 Undetermined NON
AZ Bisbee 08/06/14-08/15/14 Lesser Long-nosed Bat 5 (e) Predation NW
AZ Greenfield Park, Mesa 08/24/14-08/31/14 Mallard 20 (e) Botulism type C NW
AZ Mohave Valley 08/18/14-10/15/14 Eurasian Collared Dove, Rock Dove 150 (e) Viral Infection: avian paramyxovirus 1 suspect NW
CA Hesperia Lake 07/07/14-08/02/14 Hybrid Mallard Duck 15 (e) Botulism suspect OT
CA Lake Merritt 09/02/14-09/15/14 Double-crested Cormorant 20 (e) Emaciation NW
CA Pocket Canal 07/26/14-10/08/14 Mallard, Hybrid Mallard Duck 80 (e) Botulism type C NW
CA San Luis Obispo County to Los Angeles County 07/30/14-09/20/14 Brandt's Cormorant 500 (e) Emaciation NW
CA Tule Lake NWR 07/04/14-10/04/14 Mallard, Green-winged Teal, Northern Pintail, Northern Shoveler, Unidentified Avian 6841 Botulism type C NW
ID Payette County 09/02/14-10/28/14 Green-winged Teal, Unidentified Duck, American Coot, Unidentified Avian, Great Horned Owl 50 (e) Botulism type C NW
ID Teton Valley 08/20/14-08/31/14 Tiger Salamander 40 (e) Undetermined NW
KY Madison County 08/01/14-09/19/14 Eastern Box Turtle 26 Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
LA Soda Lake WMA 09/17/14-09/20/14 Black Vulture 45 (e) Toxicosis: organophosphorus compound NW, SCW
MA Monomoy NWR 07/13/14-08/01/14 Common Tern 90 (e) Salmonellosis NW
MA Wareham 09/29/14-09/30/14 Rock Dove 6 Viral Infection: pigeon paramyxovirus 1 NW
MD Poplar Island 07/25/14-10/17/14 Double-crested Cormorant 277 Salmonellosis NW
MI East Grand Traverse Bay 07/30/14-08/13/14 Mallard 36 (e) Botulism type C MI
MI Luna Pier 09/01/14-09/08/14 Mallard 20 Botulism type C MI
MI Macomb County 09/08/14-09/11/14 Mallard 7 Botulism type C MI
MI Milliken State Park 09/15/14-09/24/14 Mallard 11 (e) Botulism type C MI
MI Mount Clemens 08/24/14-08/26/14 Mallard 10 Botulism type C MI
MI Taylor 08/01/14-08/03/14 Mallard, Muskrat 10 Botulism suspect MI
MN Leech Lake 08/01/14-09/30/14 Double-crested Cormorant, Unidentified Gull 80 (e) Viral Infection: avian paramyxovirus 1 suspect NW
MN Marsh Lake 08/01/14-08/15/14 Ring-billed Gull, American White Pelican, Double-crested Cormorant 44 Viral Infection: West Nile NW
MN Old Forestville Historic Village 07/17/14-08/05/14 Big Brown Bat 70 (e) Emaciation NW
MN Pigeon Lake 07/15/14-09/30/14 Double-crested Cormorant, American White Pelican, Killdeer, Unidentified Gull 40 (e) Viral Infection: virulent Newcastle Disease NW
MT Bowdoin NWR 08/23/14-08/26/14 Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Bank Swallow 25 (e) Emaciation: starvation suspect NW
MT Bowdoin NWR 08/25/14-09/15/14 American White Pelican, Gadwall, Unidentified Gull, Unidentified Duck, Mallard 170 (e) Botulism suspect NW
MT Medicine Lake NWR 08/18/14-09/01/14 Canvasback, Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Avocet 50 (e) Botulism type C CAF, NW
MT Musselshell and Golden Valley Counties 08/15/14-09/30/14 Greater Sage Grouse 18 Open NW
ND Hoggarth Dam 08/02/14-10/31/14 Double-crested Cormorant, Canada Goose 50 (e) Viral Infection: virulent Newcastle Disease NW
ND Lake Sakakawea 08/04/14-10/04/14 American White Pelican 50 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW
NM Thoreau 07/13/14-07/14/14 Brown-headed Cowbird, Red-winged Blackbird, House Sparrow 200 (e) Undetermined NW
NV Elko 07/14/14-ongoing Eurasian Collared Dove 75 (e) Viral Infection: pigeon paramyxovirus 1 NW
NV Las Vegas 07/21/14-09/10/14 Eurasian Collared Dove 15 (e) Viral Infection: pigeon paramyxovirus 1 NW
NV Virginia Lake 08/01/14-10/23/14 Mallard, Unidentified Gull, Common Merganser, Green-winged Teal 20 Botulism type C NW
OH Freemont Reservoir 08/18/14-08/19/14 Ring-billed Gull 18 Undetermined NW
PA Powdermill Nature Reserve 07/15/14-08/05/14 Big Brown Bat, Red Bat, Little Brown Bat 6 (e) Rabies NW
PA Shickshinny 07/01/14-08/21/14 Big Brown Bat 15 (e) Trauma NW
PA Upper Leacock Township 07/28/14-07/28/14 American Robin, House Finch, Unidentified Passerine 150 (e) Trauma SCW
TX Coleman County 08/18/14-08/18/14 House Sparrow, Unidentified Flycatcher 250 (e) Trauma: weather suspect NW
VA Fort Eustis 07/02/14-08/21/14 Evening Bat 12 (e) Emaciation NW
WA Clark County 08/05/14-09/02/14 Mallard, Unidentified Duck, Killdeer, Unidentified Sandpiper 15 (e) Undetermined NON
WA Point Brown, Grays Harbor 08/14/14-09/30/14 Common Murre, Western Gull, Glaucous-winged Gull, Rhinoceros Auklet, Greater White-fronted Goose 170 (e) Emaciation NW
WA Sammamish 08/10/14-08/30/14 Band-tailed Pigeon 12 (e) Parasitism: trichomoniasis suspect NON
WI Lake Escanaba 07/01/14-07/31/14 Bullfrog 300 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
WI Milwaukee 08/26/14-09/18/14 Mallard 11 Botulism type C NW
WI Spooner 07/09/14-07/11/14 Little Brown Bat 38 Undetermined NW
WI Wautoma 07/18/14-07/18/14 Big Brown Bat 5 Emaciation NW
Updates and Corrections:
Location Dates Species Mortality A Diagnosis B Laboratory C
AZ Phoenix and Scottsdale 06/18/14-09/15/14 Rosy-faced (Peach-faced) Lovebird 75 (e) Chlamydiosis NW
CA Multiple counties 02/09/14-11/13/14 Mourning Dove 171 Parasitism: trichomoniasis CFG
CA Statewide 05/01/14-11/20/14 American Crow, Western Scrub Jay, Yellow-billed Magpie, Steller's Jay, Common Raven 700 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile CAF, NW
DE Blackiston Wildlife Area 05/18/14-07/01/14 Wood Frog 1000 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
DE New Castle County 05/15/14-07/01/14 Wood Frog, American Toad, Unidentified Frog, Southern Leopard Frog 1000 (e) Viral Infection: Ranavirus NW
MI Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore 06/27/14-11/08/14 Common Loon, White-winged Scoter, Double-crested Cormorant, Ring-billed Gull, Long-tailed Duck 96 Botulism type E NW
MS Desoto National Forest 05/04/14-08/21/14 Dusky Gopher Frog 39 Parasitism: Perkinsus-like organism NW
TN Wilson County 06/15/14-06/15/14 Mallard, Hybrid Mallard Duck, Wood Duck, Unidentified Woodpecker, Raccoon 21 Toxicosis: carbofuran SCW

A (e) = estimate

B Suspect = diagnosis is not finalized or completed tests were unable to confirm the diagnosis, but field signs and historic patterns indicate the disease; Open = diagnosis is not finalized and tests are on-going; Undetermined = testing is complete or was not pursued and no cause of death was evident

C California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory Network (CAF), California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Wildlife Investigations Laboratory) (CFG), Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MI), No diagnostics pursued (NON), National Wildlife Health Center (NW), Other (OT), Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCW)

Written and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center Epidemiology Team members: Anne Ballmann, Barb Bodenstein, Bob Dusek, and Jenny Chipault.

To report mortality in contiguous United States or Alaska, or to receive information about this report, please contact the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) Wildlife Epidemiology Team, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, (608) 270-2480, NWHC-epi@usgs.gov. To report mortality in Hawaii or Pacific Islands, contact NWHC - Honolulu Field Station, PO Box 50167, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 5-231, Honolulu, Hawaii 96850, (808) 792-9596, thierry_work@usgs.gov.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Avian botulism type C summary
Avian botulism type C, both diagnosed and suspected cases, accounted for roughly a third of all wildlife mortality events (15/50) that the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) has on record during the third quarter (July – September) of 2014. When data from these 15 events are combined with six botulism type C events from the rest of 2014, bird mortality was shown to span from early June to late October and occurred in all four migratory bird flyways (nine states) with a total estimated mortality of 7,710 birds. The majority of the reported mortality (89%) occurred at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, California (6,841 birds between July and October), with the remaining 20 botulism type C events involving an average of only 43 dead birds per location. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) or mallard hybrids were affected in 19 of the 21 events, with almost 4,000 total known dead (3,860 at Tule Lake alone). Other ducks markedly impacted include teal (Cinnamon [A. cyanoptera], Blue-winged [A. discors], and Green-winged [A. crecca]; n = 1,009), Northern Pintail (A. acuta; n = 722), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata; n = 446). Waterfowl using the Tule Lake and Klamath Basin area have been affected by avian botulism most years since the late 1970s, with an average annual mortality of roughly 5,000 birds; thus, the 2014 mortality was not atypical.

NWHC received carcasses for diagnostic investigation from 13 of these 21 aforementioned events. The other eight events were reported by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Concurrent diagnostic findings were aspergillosis, avian cholera, parasitism, predation, riemerellosis, and salmonellosis. Additionally, toxic microcystins were detected in water samples collected at two die-off locations.

More information about botulism can be found on the NWHC website http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/avian_botulism/index.jsp.

Avian paramyxovirus-1 outbreaks in cormorants in the Midwest
Outbreaks of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus; DCCO) nesting colonies in the United States have been sporadically reported since 1992. The majority of APMV-1 viruses isolated from DCCO have been further classified as virulent Newcastle Disease virus (NDV). This virulent strain of NDV has the potential to cause disease in poultry, thus knowledge of this disease is important for both wildlife management and agricultural production. In 2014, virulent NDV was documented in DCCO from Stutsman County, North Dakota and Meeker County, Minnesota. A third mortality event in Cass County, Minnesota was suspected to be attributed to APMV-1 based on microscopic examination of brain tissue, but no virus was isolated. All three of these counties have had APMV-1 associated DCCO mortality events in previous years; however, the specific DCCO breeding colony affected within Stutsman County in 2014 had no previous record of this disease. The last large APMV-1 outbreak in DCCO (over 1,000 DCCO total) was in 2012 and occurred at nine different mortality sites in four states: Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. There were no APMV-1 mortality events in DCCO populations reported to, or investigated by, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in 2013.

As is typical during APMV-1 mortality events in DCCO, mortality was also observed in other co-occuring species such as American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), gulls (Larus sp), Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) at the 2014 mortality sites. No carcasses of these species were examined in 2014 but, in past years, species other than DCCO have been found to have alternate causes of death, including West Nile virus and botulism type C. Concurrent diagnostic findings found in APMV-1 positive DCCO examined during 2014 included avian cholera, aspergillosis, salmonellosis, and parasitism.

Sources of summer mortality in North American bats
In the 20 years preceding the emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in the United States, less than one summer bat mortality event per year was reported to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center from a total of 12 states. Since 2008, reports of summer mortality in bats have occurred annually (averaging 12 reports per year) and have originated from 29 states. Increased monitoring of bats at maternity colonies during summer months for population level impacts and increased public awareness of WNS may be responsible for this increase in bat mortality reporting rather than an overall decline in bat health. White-nose syndrome has only been identified as the cause of death in cave-hibernating bat species submitted during the hibernation period (generally, November to May), when dead or debilitated bats are found in or around hibernacula. Increased monitoring vigilance and reporting does allow some insight into common causes of summer bat mortality in North America, though almost 30% of all reported cases had undetermined causes. Known causes of death during the summer include trauma (including predation), emaciation, rabies, pasteurellosis, toxicosis, and parasitism. Summer mortality events involving bats have ranged from one to 2,000 individuals and were comprised of one or more species. Submission of fresh, dead bats for diagnostic evaluation from unusual or unexplained summer mortality events is encouraged to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns and species involved.

USGS National Wildlife Health Center reorganization
The USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) has recently reorganized for the purpose of aligning our organizational structure with our new strategic science goals. There are now three NWHC science branches: Wildlife Epidemiology and Emerging Diseases, Wildlife Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, and Applied Wildlife Health Research. The reorganization will also streamline and improve the epidemiological and diagnostic services provided by the NWHC to federal, state, and tribal natural resource partners. To report a wildlife mortality event or to discuss possible specimen submissions, please contact our Wildlife Epidemiology Team (Barb Bodenstein, Anne Ballmann, Bob Dusek, and Jenny Chipault). The epidemiologist assigned to your case will be your primary point of contact for technical assistance on disease epidemiology, management, and monitoring. If you submit specimens, a wildlife pathologist will also be assigned to your case and become your primary point of contact on diagnostic findings and cause of morbidity or mortality. Further information needed to report a mortality event and/or request our diagnostic services, instructions for collection and shipment of specimens, and guidelines for diagnostic case submissions can be found by clicking the large yellow button labeled "Disease Investigation Services" in the upper right corner of our website (www.nwhc.usgs.gov). We look forward to continuing to provide you with the best services possible. Please do not hesitate to contact a member of the Wildlife Epidemiology Team at (608) 270-2480 or NWHC-epi@usgs.gov with any questions you have regarding this new system. To request services or report wildlife mortality events in Hawaii or Pacific Island territories, contact the NWHC Honolulu Field Station at (808) 792-9520 or thierry_work@usgs.gov.

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