Home Archived March 16, 2018

Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

Aquatic Invasive Species Control

Evaluation of the acute toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a TFM/1% niclosamide mixture to the black sandshell mussel (ligumia recta)

Principal Investigator: Mike Boogaard

Impact of UMESC Science

The results of this research will allow treatment managers to maintain treatment effectiveness in controlling sea lamprey populations while minimizing the impact to non-target species of concern. Use of lampricides to control lamprey populations in the Great Lakes is critical to sustaining the Great Lakes fishery industry.


In recent years, there has been growing concern over the risk of lampricide applications to non-target fauna, especially aquatic species listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern. Two Lake Champlain tributaries in Vermont that are routinely treated for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) also contain populations of the black sandshell mussel (Ligumia recta), a state-listed endangered species. The black sandshell is a large, elongated shaped mussel, growing to 13-20 cm, preferring medium to large rivers with sand, sand and gravel, or silt substrates. 

The black sandshell is widely distributed, but in low densities, in the Missisippi and St. Lawrence drainages. Host fish species for the black sandshell include the sauger (Sander canadensis), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis).  Some limited toxicological information is available on the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on the black sandshell.  But results are questionable, due to poor condition of individuals tested. To date there is no information on the effects of the TFM and niclosamide mixture on this species.


To evaluate the acute toxicity of the lampricides TFM and TFM/1% niclosamide to juvenile black sandshell mussels.


Adair, R.A. and W.P. Sullivan. 2009.  Standard Operating Procedures for Application of Lampricides in the Great Lakes Fishery Commission Integrated Management of Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Control Program.  USFWS Technical Report.  Special Report 92-001.3.  USFWS, Marquette Biological Station, Marquette, MI.  912 pp.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 2006.  Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels.  E2455-06.  ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey

URL: http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/aquatic/aquatic_invasives15.html
Page Contact Information: Contacting the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center
Page Last Modified: February 24, 2016