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Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

Aquatic Invasive Species Control

Synthesis of GD-174 (2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol) and its Derivatives

Principal Investigator: Tammy Clark

Impact of UMESC Science

The results from this research will provide a chemical that may be somewhat nontoxic to native fish species and highly toxic to certain invasive fish species.  The selective toxicant has the potential to be used by fishery management agencies to control invasive fish species throughout the United Sates.


Current toxicants used to control aquatic invasive species are general toxicants with limited to no selectivity (e.g. Antimycin, Rotenone).  Research will focus on synthesizing GD-174 (2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol) and its derivatives. GD-174 had previously been shown to be selectively toxic to common carp in laboratory studies but its efficacy was lost when tested in pond mesocosms.  Following synthesis of GD-174 and derivatives, acute toxicity studies will be initiated (to determine the sensitivity of native and non-native species to GD-174 and its derivatives.  Incorporation into a targeted delivery system will also be evaluated.


  1. Develop a synthesis method  for GD-174 and fully characterize GD-174 via 1H NMR, IR, GCMS to ensure purity.
  2. Synthesize salt forms of GD-174 that may affect bioavailability of GD-174 in fish or alter the compound’s binding to plants in order to increase its efficacy in natural environments.
  3. Design structural analogs of GD-174 after reviewing analogs that have been previously synthesized and tested.

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